Points of interest

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Psyche revived by Cupid's kiss

Psyche revived by Love's kiss is an emblematic sculpture exhibited at the Louvre Museum in Paris. This magnificent work was created by Antonio Canova, a renowned Italian sculptor, in the early 19th century. The sculpture depicts the moment when Psyche, a mythological princess, is reanimated by the kiss of Cupid, the god of Love. Psyche lies on a bed, looking sleepy, while Cupid, with his angel wings outstretched, leans in to give her a kiss. The scene is captured with great delicacy and attention to detail, which makes the sculpture incredibly realistic. The sculpture is made of white marble, which gives it an elegant and timeless appearance. The folds of the draperies surrounding the figures are sculpted with great precision, giving an impression of movement and lightness. The faces of the two characters are imbued with an expression of tenderness and gentleness, perfectly capturing the love and beauty of this moment. Psyche revived by Love's kiss is exhibited in a room specially dedicated to the sculptor Antonio Canova. The room is lit to highlight the sculpture and create an intimate and romantic atmosphere. Visitors can admire the work from all angles, appreciating the minute details and finesse of Canova's work. This sculpture is considered one of Canova's finest achievements and is a must-see for art lovers and tourists visiting the Louvre. She symbolizes love and rebirth, and her timeless beauty continues to captivate viewers around the world.

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Cupid and Psyche

by Antonio Canova. At the end of the 18th century, we could appreciate many different artistic styles. Some painters produced serious themes and others preferred playful and tender scenes. The Roman Empire was once again a source of inspiration. It was also a period of political and social unrest. In 1789, the French Revolution put an end to the Monarchy for 15 years, until the Restoration. Napoleon became Emperor of France until 1815. This charming neoclassical Canova sculpture has enchanted visitors to the Louvre for decades, including Napoleon Bonaparte, for whom the artist made several commissions. The composition of the sculpture, its ethereal quality and its soft marble (polished creating an illusion of real skin) really appeals the imagination of the spectator. Canova was inspired by the myth of Venus, the goddess of love, who gave Psyche a task to bring back from the underworld a flask, with strict instructions not to open it. However, the curious Psyche disobeyed the goddess and opened the flask. Intoxicated by the content, she fell into a mortal sleep, until Cupid, the son of Venus, found her and kissed her, which woke her up. Thus, Cupid is authorized by the gods to marry his beloved Psyche, becoming the goddess of the soul and attaining immortality. A story with happy ending that represents hope for the new life that came along after the French Revolution.

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Self-portrait with Chinese lantern plant

The 1912 self-portrait with the Chinese lantern plant is now one of Egon Schiele's most famous works, one that shows the artist at the height of his artistic prowess. A balanced composition that leaves nothing to chance, each line has found its continuation or corresponding counterpart: hair and body mirror each other, cut out at the horizontal edges of the image, with these dark sections balanced by the bright fruits of red lantern. In another display of balance, Schiele's head is turned to the right, his gaze fixed directly on the observer. The composition of the image is particularly defined by sharp lines and a virtuoso application of color. In this way, the artist presents himself as both fragile and confident. The work was conceived as a counterpart to his portrait of Wally Neuzil made at the same time, which explains the distinctively asymmetrical composition.

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Monument to Alfonso XII

In front of El Retiro Park, Madrid's large rectangular Pond Grande del Retiro, also known as the Great Pond after the distinguished Spanish architect Cristóbal de Aguilera, is the magnificent monument of Alfonso XII. It was in 1902 when the plan was formed to build a monument to Alfonso XII. Consequently, a competition supported by the then Queen María Cristina was held that would determine the architect for the monument project, with architect Grases Riera as the final winner. It consists of a large colonnade with a large number of sculptures surrounding the equestrian statue of the King, all in bronze and marble. The entire complex is 30 meters high, 86 meters long and 58 meters wide.

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Grove of Columns

The column grove is triangular, inside there is a circular vegetation room surrounded by a marble column 32 meters in diameter. There are 32 alternating white and pink Ionic marble columns connected by arches. In the center there is a statue sculpted by François Girardon. It's called the Pluto Rapture of Proserpina. The place was built in 1685 by Jules Hardouin-Mansart on the site of an older grove, at the behest of Louis XIV, who wanted marble columns with large fountains. The sculpture scene in the center is masterful in its expressive power and tells us a myth that could only be created in the ancient world. Proserpina is the goddess of the harvest, of fertility. One day he was walking through the woods until a man fell in love. This man was Pluto or Hades, the god of hell or underworld. Hades knows that it will be impossible to conquer her to take her to the underworld, so he decides to kidnap her. Proserpina's mother, Ceres, goddess of nature, becomes distraught and searches everywhere for her. Since Persephone does not appear, the crops do not come out and the human being begins to starve. As Zeus is the protector of man, he sends Hermes/Mercury and goes to talk to his brother and finally Hades accepts and returns her. Easy right? Too easy. Zeus asks Proserpina if she had accepted any gifts from Hades in the underworld. After hesitating his answer, he admits that yes, 6 pomegranate seeds when he was hungry. Zeus laments, because receiving a gift from the underworld was the symbol of the alliance between them, so Proserpina was the wife of Hades. He manages to negotiate with his brother and they decide that Proserpina must stay in the underworld for a month for each pomegranate grain she had eaten. When Proserpina goes down to the underworld, the leaves of the trees begin to fall. Her mother Ceres begins to miss her and nature is filled with nostalgia. After 3 months winter sets in, the sadness is already deep, nature feels the emptiness of life and anguish occupies the atmosphere. But 6 months pass, and Proserpina returns to the surface, she is reunited with her mother. Spring arrives and flowers emerge to celebrate this encounter, nature fills with life. Ceres decorates the world with flowers to welcome her daughter. After 3 months, summer sets in and the sun illuminates the face of the earth, love is total, but the return to the underworld is also prepared, once again installing the cycle of life with autumn, winter, spring and summer. .

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The naked maja

The Naked Maja is one of the most famous works of Francisco de Goya. The painting is a commissioned work painted before 1800, in a period that would be between 1790 and 1800. He then formed a pair with La Maja Vestido, dated between 1800 and 1808, probably at the request of Manuel Godoy, as it is known that they were part of a cabinet in his house. In both paintings, the same beautiful woman is portrayed in full body, lying peacefully on a bed and looking directly at the observer. Although it is not a mythological nude, but a real woman, a contemporary of Goya, and even in her time it was called The Gypsy. The temporal primacy of The Naked Maja indicates that at the time of being painted, the painting was not intended to form a pair. It has been speculated that the sitter is the Duchess of Alba, since upon her death in 1802, all her paintings became the property of Godoy, to whom it is known that the two majas belonged, in a similar way to what happened with the Venus. of Velázquez's mirror. It is most likely that the model directly portrayed was the then lover and later wife of Godoy himself, Pepita Tudó. In any case, given certain physical similarities between both ladies, it is likely that Goya, when portraying Pepita Tudó, evoked La Cayetana, as the Duchess of Alba was popularly called, and thus immortalized her.[citation needed] Initially both paintings, La maja ropa (The dressed maja) and La maja naked (The naked maja), were the property of Manuel Godoy, where the clothed woman was placed on top of the naked one, in such a way that the latter painting was revealed through a mechanism. The history of the work is full of adventures: in 1807 Fernando VII confiscated it from Godoy, and in 1814, the Inquisition decided to kidnap it for "obscene" and start a trial against Goya. From this trial the painter achieved acquittal thanks to the influence of Cardinal Luis María de Borbón y Vallabriga, but the painting was stored out of public view until practically the beginning of the 20th century. The naked maja is the source of inspiration for Manet's Olympia pose.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Antoine COYSEVOX. Replica of the bust of the minister of Louis XIV executed on the order of the Academy of painting and sculpture and given to Colbert, then protector of the institution in 1677. Colbert is one of the principal ministers of Louis XIV. Comptroller General of Finance from 1665 to 1683, Secretary of State of the King's House and Secretary of State of the Navy from 1669 to 1683. This bust is the culmination of a clever policy led by Antoine Coysevox (1640-1720) to achieve glory. "This representation full of history mixes the greatest characters of the state, Louis XIV, Le Brun, Colbert and Coysevox," says the art historian Françoise de La Moureyre. Louis XIV appointed Colbert Superintendent of Finance in 1665. On his side, Coysevox became a sculptor. The sculptor brings to the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture this famous bust of Colbert. "Coysevox, who belongs to the second generation of sculptors of the seventeenth century, will be honored as the greatest sculptor of bust portraits of his time," says Françoise de la Moureyre.

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Saint Michael Square

Plaza Sant Miquel, more than a square, is a crossroads for the labyrinthine streets of the Gothic Quarter of Barcelona. From there you can see mysterious passages, alleys and remains of the old wall. At one side you can see the Modern part of the town hall building and at the opposite end a monument to the Castellers. The monument is titled Homenatge als Castellers, rises to the sky 30 meters high and was made by Antoni Llena in 2011. The statue is a tribute to the iconic human towers, which are a traditional feature of public events in Catalonia. In an interview with a Spanish newspaper, Llena said that instead of creating a figurative representation, she was inspired by chicken wire and nets that are sometimes used to wrap bottles. Each of the X-shaped sections of chicken wire represents a person. The tower is made up of six layers, each of which becomes smaller and smaller. This reflects the fact that in real human towers the lower layers are made up of men, the middle layers of women and teenagers, and the upper levels of children. The unjoined tubes at the top of the sculpture recall the outstretched arm of the enxaneta or little child that tops the tower. The Castellers originated about two hundred years ago, in a competition in Tarragona to see which group could build the tallest human tower. Since then, they have been traditionally carried out every spring and in 2011 these unique human towers were declared Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The square was previously used for parking cars, but is now used as a social space, with numerous restaurants and places to eat.

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Sistine Chapel

"Without having seen the Sistine Chapel, one cannot form an appreciable idea of what human beings are capable of achieving." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. This is perhaps the final destination of the Vatican Museums, what everyone hopes to see because it really it is unique. In 1475 the restoration works of the old Great Chapel belonging to the old Vatican fortress of the 13th century began, with the aim of having a new environment with religious functions and exalting the triumph of the church, hence its measures are based on the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem (40 long, 13 wide and 22 high). The new palatine chapel of the Apostolic Palace would be known, even worldwide, as the Sistine Chapel, due to the financing pope: Sixtus IV della Rovere. In 1482 it was completed and on August 15, 1483, on the occasion of the feast of the Virgin of the Assumption, it was inaugurated and consecrated to the homonymous Virgin. Currently the religious functions of the chapel have decreased considerably, but its main function is to host the Conclave (under lock and key), that is, the main meeting in which a new pope will be elected. Throughout history, the famous Sistine Chapel has had different stages of construction, renovation and restoration. First of all, the architectural structure is carried out, which reminds us of a medieval defensive fortress, designed by Baccio Pontelli and carried out by Giovannino de' Dolci. The interior decoration has several important elements among which we can highlight: on the one hand, the floor in Cosmatesco style, medieval paving based on reused marble segments forming geometric decorations typical of the 15th century, mainly in Rome, designed for positions during processions. or religious events. On the other hand, the choir (schola cantorum), on the right side, which witnessed the celebrations and accompanied the prayers through singing; and El traco or dividing wall, in marble, from the 15th century, decorated with cherubs holding the coat of arms of the della Rovere family and a balustrade with 7 gold candelabras; The main function of this division was to make two environments to separate the public from the clerics. And finally, and most important, the pictorial decoration cradle of the Renaissance, carried out in three different periods: The Frescoes of Sixtus IV: carried out during the restoration intervention of Pope Sixtus IV della Rovere. They were made by a group of artists, from an early Renaissance, mainly from Florence and Umbria, such as Perugino, teacher of Raphael, Sandro Boticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, teacher of Michelangelo, and Cosimo Roselli, Biagio d'Antonio and Luca Signorelli. Under the supervision of two papal theologians, these artists created a series of homogeneous frescoes that began from the altar, in chronological narration, towards the main access door. All the walls were divided into three registers; lower part false curtains, trompe l'oeil, where the tapestries designed by Rafael and his students were hung; central part, with the stories of Jesus, the right, protagonist of the New Testament, in comparison with the Old Testament stories starring Moses; the upper part, within painted exedras, 24 of the first popes in church history. However, the altar wall was lost with the intervention of Michelangelo for the Universal Judgment. While the back wall was lost due to a strong storm that knocked down an architrave. The frescoes were repainted and are not the originals. Finally, the vault was completed with a starry sky, by Pier Matteo d'Amelia, to give a feeling of harmony. Michelangelo's vault: For four years, from 150-1512, Michelangelo (aged thirty-three), by order of the new Pope Julius II della Rovere (nephew of Sixtus IV) renewed the structure and frescoes of the vault with the completion of 800 characters divided between scenes from Genesis, central part, stories of the heroes of the Bible, pendentives, and seers of antiquity, sides. The artist's first major painting project, which he had initially rejected due to his devotion to sculpture and not painting, gave him the fame he longed for. The altar: the last renovation of the Sistine Chapel, and perhaps the most surprising even for its author, was Michelangelo's Last Judgment which he carried out between the years 1535-41, that is, for 5 years, when he was about 60 years old. A chilling Michelangelo vision of the final judgment described by the apostle Saint John, based on Dante's Divine Comedy and the philosophical currents of Humanism and Neoplatonism. In addition to an in-depth study of male human anatomy. The blue background is divided into different scenes formed by the nearly 400 bodies that surround the protagonist of the end of times: Jesus.

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The boat of the goddess Anuket

This sculpture is important because it shows us an image of the goddess Anuket, very important for the Egyptians. This goddess was worshiped throughout Nubia, particularly in the area of ​Sehel (near the first Nile waterfall) and Komir (south of Esna). She is represented as a black woman with a crown decorated with ostrich feathers and vegetables, or as a black woman with the head of a gazelle (animal very present in the region of the first cataract). It is also known as the 'Lady of the South'. She is the daughter of the god Amun Re, whose mission is to watch over the Nile so that its fertile mud leads to good harvests and water the Elephantine population with fresh water. With the goddess Satis and the ram-headed god Khnum form the divine triad of Elephantine, guardians of the falls of Philae, Esneh and Sehel. It will be associated during the Ptolemaic period with sexuality (fertility) and lust. Among the Greeks, it will be venerated under the name of the goddess Hestia.

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On May 3 in Madrid

The 3rd of May in Madrid (also known as The Executions on the Mountain of Príncipe Pío2​3​ or The Executions of the Third of May) is a painting by the Aragonese painter Francisco de Goya completed in 1814. Goya's intention in creating it was to capture the struggle of the Spanish people against French domination within the framework of the May 2 uprising, at the beginning of the Spanish War of Independence. His partner is The Second of May 1808 in Madrid, also called The Burden of the Mamelukes. Both paintings are from the same period and artistic movement. His technique and chromaticism typical of mature Goya. Goya suggested the commission of these large-format paintings to the liberal regency of Luis María de Borbón y Vallabriga, before the arrival of King Ferdinand VII. It was usually said that they adorned a triumphal arch dedicated to the king in the Puerta de Alcalá but latest research refutes this. In any case, Goya's intention to make these paintings is reflected in an autograph letter from the Aragonese, where he writes: "I feel an ardent desire to perpetuate through the brush the most notable and heroic actions or scenes of our glorious insurrection against the tyrant of Europe." The painting is dark, shows strong images and creates the archetype of horror in Spanish painting, which Goya took advantage of at that time for his etchings titled The Disasters of War. The Third of May 1808 has inspired numerous paintings, such as The Execution of Maximilian, by Édouard Manet, as well as other works by him related to war action. Guernica and Massacre in Korea are the two works by Pablo Picasso in which the influence of The Executions can be seen. In the 1850s the painter José de Madrazo – then director of the Prado – questioned whether Goya had painted this canvas. He stated that "the painting is of much lower quality than other portraits by the master Goya." Decades later, during the heyday of Impressionism and Romanticism, it acquired worldwide fame as it was considered a direct antecedent of such styles. The work was moved to Valencia in 1937 along with the entire Museum collection to avoid possible damage during the Civil War, but during the journey the work suffered an accident. The damage was repaired thanks to the restorations undertaken in 1938, 1939, 1941 and 2008.

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Wedding Feast at Cana

by Paolo Caliari, “The Veronese”, 1563. This painting measures almost 70 square meters, being the largest one preserved in a French museum. 132 figures are represented in the scene, showing the first miracle of Christ: turning water into wine at a wedding feast in Cana. The painting was commissioned for the refectory of San Giorgio Maggiore, in Venice. The painting hangs in the dining room of the building you are currently visiting since 1798, after having been plundered by Napoleon I from the Monastery where it belonged. It is spectacular not only in terms of scale, but also in terms of the artist's treatment of space and color. It is a theatrical scene that portrays each figure in the Italian fashion of the 16th century and not in clothes that go back to antiquity. Veronese, who was specialized in decorative painting, represents the Religious scene in all the decadence of a Venetian banquet, including interesting symbols. Above the head of Christ, a group of men can be seen cutting flesh, which represents the sacrifice of Christ for humanity; at the banquet table, guests are eating fruits such as quinces, which are a symbol of marriage. Interestingly, the only two figures that look directly at the viewer, are Christ and the bride. Jesus is placed in the middle of the composition, and the bride at the left bottom of the banquet table. Can you find her? Her husband is sitting next to her and someone is serving him a glass of wine. Directly in front of Christ, there is a group of musicians. Veronese paints himself as one of them, wearing beautiful white silk clothes and being thus more visible than Christ himself! Moreover, there are other contemporaries of the artist who exchange their brushes for instruments in the scene, such as Tintoretto, Bassano and Titian. During the World War II, the painting was transferred to the South of France to be protected, which explains that it could be carried out easily despite its size.

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Arc de Triomphe du Carroussel

The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is an iconic monument located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. It is close to the famous Louvre Museum and is a major tourist attraction in the city. Built between 1806 and 1808, this triumphal arch was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to celebrate his military victories. The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is neoclassical in style and is inspired by the architecture of Roman antiquity. It was designed by architect Charles Percier and sculptor Pierre François Léonard Fontaine. The monument is approximately 19 meters high, 23 meters wide and 7 meters deep. The arch is made up of three main arches, each decorated with bas-reliefs depicting battle scenes and allegories of victory. The bas-reliefs are beautifully carved and detailed, demonstrating the artistic talent of the period. At the top of the arch is a chariot pulled by four horses, symbolizing victory. The bronze horses were added in 1828 and are a reproduction of the horses of St. Mark in Venice. The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is surrounded by a magnificent landscaped garden, providing visitors with a pleasant setting in which to stroll and relax. The garden is dotted with statues, fountains and flower beds, creating a peaceful and picturesque atmosphere. Visitors can climb the steps of the arch to enjoy panoramic views of the surrounding area, including the Louvre, the Tuileries Gardens and the famous Avenue des Champs-Élysées. It's a great place to take photos and admire the beauty of Paris. The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is open to the public and entry is free. It is recommended to visit the monument early in the morning or late afternoon to avoid crowds. Visitors can also take advantage of guided tours to learn more about the history and architecture of this historic monument. In conclusion, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is an architectural gem of Paris, offering visitors a unique cultural and historical experience. Its beauty, history and location make it a must-see for all tourists visiting the French capital.

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Bank of Spain

The Bank of Spain, as an institution, was created in 1856, following the merger of the Bank of Isabel II with the Bank of San Fernando in 1847, and its first headquarters was the building of the Cinco Mayores Gremios, located on Calle de Atocha of the capital. The increase in activities generated the need for space and the Board of Directors proposed the construction of a new headquarters, managing the purchase of the Alcañices Palace, property of the Duke of Sesto, and for whose acquisition it paid the price of about three million pesetas. The works on the new building were carried out following the project of the architects Eduardo Adaro and Severiano Sainz de la Lastra, a project with which they won the gold medal at the National Exhibition of Fine Arts of 1884. That same year, on July 4 , the first stone of the Bank was laid, in a solemn ceremony, with the presence of His Majesty Alfonso XII. The finished building will be inaugurated on March 3, 1891 by King Alfonso XIII and his mother the Queen Regent María Cristina. The floor plan is distributed in bays parallel to a series of patios aligned with the axes of the Prado and Alcalá houses, articulated by the diagonal section of the chamfer. The facades include an eclectic decorative repertoire, although the sobriety of the plinths and ground floors accentuate the idea of representative solidity that corresponds to the institution it houses. The appropriate gradation of the size of the openings on the different floors and their variety compensate for the marked horizontality of the complex.

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The Hammurabi Code

The Code of Hammurabi is the emblem of the Mesopotamian civilization. The high basalt stele erected by the King of Babylon in the 18th century BC, is a piece of art, a historical and literary work and the most complete legal collection of Antiquity, prior to Biblical Laws. Transported by a Prince from the neighboring country of Elam (in Iran) in the 12th century BC, the monument was exhibited on the acropolis of Susa among other prestigious Mesopotamian masterpieces. The text is written in cuneiform script and in Akkadian language. It is divided in 3 parts: - a historical prologue telling the investiture of King Hammurabi in his role of "protector of the weak and the oppressed", as well as the formation of his Empire and his achievements; - a lyrical epilogue summarizing its work of Justice and preparing its perpetuation in the future; - three hundred laws or rulings, referring to the regulation of daily life in the Babylon Kingdom. The Code of Hammurabi has, firstly, a value as a model, as a treaty on the exercise of the Judiciary Power, written from the perspective of Mesopotamian science, which never rises from the particular to the general. The observation of several similar cases makes us conclude that instead of a Code of Laws, it is a collection of Jurisprudence. The contradictions that can be noted (two similar cases with different results) can be explained by the fact that we are dealing with judgments from which the too intimate elements have been removed (for example the names of the protagonists). As in Mesopotamia the Justice was a Royal prerogative, Hammurabi presents a choice of the wisest judicial decisions he had to make or ratify himself.

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Stele of Vultures

Partially reconstructed from several fragments found in the remains of the Sumerian city of Girsu, this stele of vultures is the oldest known historiographic document. A long inscription in the Sumerian language recounts the recurring conflict between the neighboring city-states of Lagash and Umma and then the victory of Eannatum, king of Lagash. His triumph is illustrated with a wealth of detail by the remarkable bas-relief decor that covers both sides. The narrative of the military campaign against Umma is dramatically illustrated by figurative representations, carved in the field of the stele according to a traditional arrangement in registers. They offer here the particularity of being distributed on each of the two sides according to their symbolic perspective. One of the faces is thus devoted to the "historical" dimension and the other to the "mythological" dimension, the first one accounting for the action of men and the second of the intervention of the gods. Human determination and divine protection are thus combined to lead to victory.

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Victor Noir's grave

Victor Noir is the pseudonym of a 19th century journalist named Yves Salmon, who unfortunately died in a fight that was not his, at only 22 years of age. Noir worked for a newspaper whose owner was challenged to a duel by a prince, cousin of Emperor Napoleon III. When the journalist was sent to organize the details of the duel, the prince misinterpreted one of his movements and shot him dead. His death was a scandal, because a man of power had killed a member of civil society. A bronze statue in a very naturalistic style was erected on his grave, Noir is depicted as if he had just been shot. A superstition developed that if a woman rubs the bulge in Noir's pants, she will find love or get pregnant very quickly. Therefore, he is called "the happiest man in the cemetery." Her grave is often flowered by ladies whose wishes have been fulfilled.

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Map gallery

It was one of the main projects carried out in the 16th century, financed by Pope Gregory XIII (pope of the Gregorian calendar), representing, in a cartographic way, the Italy of the time. It looks like a kind of Google Maps from the 16th century. To create this entire large room, 120 meters long (although it seems longer because of the light effects of the barrel vault), he called an important Dominican monk, cartographer, cosmographer and mathematician, named Ignazio Danti, author of the forty letters. that have been depicted along the walls. Pope Buoncompagni (golden dragon above the door) together with Danti formed an army of specialized painters to decorate the entire room. The protagonists in charge of the project would be: Girolamo Muziano and Cesare Nebbia, among others. The work lasted only approximately three years, from 1580 to 1583, organizing the room as if it were an authentic map, establishing the corridor as if it were the peninsular Apennine mountain range, which divides all of Italy in two. Therefore we can imagine that we are walking through the mountains while enjoying the Italian landscape, seeing on the right the regions bathed by the Adriatic Sea, from Southern Puglia to Ancient Italy, while on the left we see the regions bathed by the Tyrrhenian Sea, from Avignon (it was still part of Italy) to new Italy. The ability of the artists and scholars was so high that the maps are close to eighty percent accurate towards reality. Without a doubt it was a masterpiece, and an advance, for geography.

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The Gate of Hell

The Gate of Hell is a sculptural group created by Auguste Rodin, with the collaboration of the sculptor Camille Claudel between 1880 and 1917. It is composed of different figures inspired by the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, The Flowers of Evil by Charles Baudelaire and by the Metamorphosis book. More than two hundred figures and groups were created that form a true nursery. For this sculptural group, Rodin was inspired by the cathedral of Orvieto and the Baptistery of Saint John, from which the door was taken as a model. In fact, most of the inspiration came from his trip to Florence, thanks to the fact that he wanted to study his favorite artist Michelangelo. The Gate of Hell was commissioned by Jules Ferry. According to the commission, Rodin would receive 8,000 francs for this commission, which had as its fundamental principle to represent Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy and would be placed in the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris. today the Orsay Museum. For its creation, three models were made, the first molded in 1880, which shows a decorative frame and each leaf divided into five panels. In the second model you can see that it is centered on the tympanum and on the leaves located at the top. It is possible to see that the condemned are much more defined. The third model has much more defined shapes and here is the base of The Door in its bronze version. The divisions between the panels have disappeared. This model was created in 1881. Dante's influence is seen in three characters: The Thinker, Pablo and Francesa and in Ugolina and her children. Baudelaire's influence is noticeable in the poses of the characters, especially in the part of the portal populated by women.

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Sant Iu Square

The Plaça de Sant Iu located between an enclosure of the palace and the cathedral is not notable as a square, however the Puerta Sant Iu is worthy of mention, the oldest entrance to the Cathedral, characterized by the pointed archivolts that rest on flowered capitals and the relief of an outstanding character in the history of Barcelona. Above the pillars, there are musical angels who poke their heads out of the arch. On the tympanum, there is an image of Saint Eulalia (14th century). For five hundred years this portal was the access to the cathedral, it is located under one of the bell towers. The door was built with stone brought from the Montjüic mountain in the year 1298. On each side of the door there are inscriptions that commemorate the beginning of the work and diagonally to the door, in an area of the palace is the Frederic Mares museum, above the famous collector. The door has been named after Saint Iu, patron saint of lawyers, since the 15th century. The Renaissance-looking reliefs on one side of the Sant Iu door, which are said to represent Wilfredo “el Pilos”, who was a count of Hispanic Gothic lineage who is attributed with the creation of the flag of Catalonia . Considered a brave warrior highlighted by his large amount of hair, it is said that, on his deathbed, not wanting to die without a banner, he traced four red stripes on a golden canvas with his fingers soaked in his own blood.

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The Galette Mill Dance

Auguste Renoir. 1876. We are facing the first of the impressionists that we will see: Auguste Renoir. This is probably one of his most important works and a faithful representative of the spirit of the Impressionists. The Galette Windmill Ball was presented at the group's third exhibition in 1877. In this typical Parisian scene of the time we can even see some of Renoir's friends. Galette is a traditional French bread, but people didn't go to the mill to buy the bread precisely. The Mill, which can still be seen in the bohemian neighborhood of Montmartre, on the outskirts of the city at that time, was a place where the middle class gathered to socialize, be seen by others, have fun and dance. Everyone comes with their best clothes and Renoir seeks to capture this festive atmosphere, the movement and the light of a summer afternoon. The expressive brushes used caused rejection among art critics of the time, but little by little it began to cause attraction among the people who saw themselves portrayed in these paintings of monumental scale, an issue that was unusual for a scene as mundane as a dance. on Sunday. Renoir established his studio on the hill of Montmartre and moved this large canvas with the help of a friend to paint directly in the mill and capture the essence of the moment.

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sleeping hermaphrodite

The Sleeping Hermaphrodite is a fascinating sculpture on display at the Louvre, which depicts a mythological character from Greek mythology. This work of art is a creation of Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini, considered one of the greatest sculptors of all time. The Sleeping Hermaphrodite is a white marble sculpture, measuring approximately 1.70 meters in length. She represents a sleeping androgynous being, half man and half woman. The body is lying on a bed of delicate draperies, creating an atmosphere of softness and tranquility. The sculpture is remarkable for its finesse and realism. Anatomical details are rendered with incredible precision, from the muscles to the folds of the draperies. The facial features are delicate and expressive, giving the impression that the character is asleep. The Sleeping Hermaphrodite is a representation of hermaphroditism, a concept that has existed since ancient times. In Greek mythology, Hermaphrodite was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. He was both male and female, symbolizing the union of the two sexes. This sculpture embodies this duality and explores the notions of gender and sexuality. The Sleeping Hermaphrodite is a work that provokes numerous interpretations and reflections. Some see it as a representation of ideal beauty, others find it a reflection on identity and sexuality. Whatever the interpretation, this sculpture is undeniably a masterpiece of 17th-century art and a must-see attraction in the Louvre.

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The dormitory in Arlés

On the subject of his bedroom, Van Gogh made three almost identical paintings. The first, preserved in the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, was executed in October 1888 and deteriorated in a flood that occurred during the painter's hospitalization in Arles. About a year later, he undertook the making of two copies: one, of the same size, is preserved today in the Art Institute of Chicago; the other, the one at the Orsay Museum, made for his family in Holland, is smaller in size. In a letter addressed to his brother Théo, Vincent explains what prompted him to paint such a work: he wanted to express tranquility and highlight the simplicity of his bedroom through the symbolism of colors. To do this, he describes: "the pale lilac walls, the floor of a worn and dull red, the chrome yellow chairs and bed, the pillows and the very pale lemon green sheet, the blood red blanket, the orange toilet table, the blue basin, the green window", stating: "I had wanted to express absolute repose through all these diverse tones." Through these different tones, Van Gogh refers to Japan, its crepes and its prints. It is justified in this way: "The Japanese have lived in very simple interiors and great artists have lived in this country." Although, for the Japanese, a room decorated with paintings and furniture may not seem really simple, for Vincent it is "an empty bedroom with a wooden bed and two chairs." Despite everything, it achieves a certain austerity, due to its composition consisting almost exclusively of straight lines and the rigorous combination of colored surfaces that compensate for the instability of perspective.

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West Sacristy

The sacristies are the ecclesiastical rooms in which the objects of liturgical celebrations are kept and in which the priests dress for the celebration. They are usually found inside churches, but Gaudí decided to house two in the cloister, in the north and west corners of the Basilica, attached to the apse. In 2016, the works on the western sacristy where we are located were completed. Construction of the other sacristy is planned to begin in 2022. Architecturally they are identical: square base, 40 meters high and consist of a basement and five more floors, connected by an attached spiral staircase. On the outside, each sacristy is divided into two parts: a stone wall that reproduces the structure of the sections of the cloister and, supported on this base, a dome of twelve paraboloids pierced with triangular openings that provide lighting.

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The School of Athens

Raphael of Sanzio, 1512. We are in front of one of Raphael's most famous paintings. It represents philosophy through a scene in which a session between classical philosophers is narrated. Because it would be located above the philosophy section of Pope Julius II, The School of Athens shows the most important philosophers, scientists and mathematicians of the classical era. Within a grandiose Renaissance architecture, the most famous philosophers of antiquity move, some of whom can be easily recognized: in the center Plato, who points upward with a finger, while holding his book Timaeus in his hand; At his side is Aristotle with Ethics; Pythagoras, on the other hand, is represented in the foreground focused on explaining the Diatesseron in the book; Lying on the steps with the bowl is Diogenes, while leaning on a block of marble, absorbed in writing on a sheet of paper, is the pessimistic philosopher Heraclitus, who looks like Michelangelo, who was painting the adjacent Sistine Chapel in those years. On the right, you can see Euclid, who teaches geometry to his students, Zoroaster with the celestial globe, Ptolemy with the terrestrial globe, and finally, on the far right, the character with the cap would be Raphael's self-portrait. . Raphael's self-portrait is located to the right of the painting, the young man with brown hair looking at the viewer, wearing a round blue hat; at his side, Perugino with the same hat but in white. To the left of the painting is Hypatia of Alexandria (painted as Margherita Luti or Francesco Maria I della Rovere), dressed in white, and looking at the viewer.

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Mother and son

A great innovator of modern figure painting, Egon Schiele is known for creating erotic and deeply psychological portraits, often using himself as a subject. Schiele often used color sparingly, his work identifiable instead by its characteristic sinuous black line. In his many self-portraits, Schiele is typically naked and looks directly at the viewer, making the works both revealing and confrontational. Schiele's female subjects are also often naked, their bodies portrayed in various twisted positions. Whether depicting himself or others, Schiele's images are strikingly raw and direct. A student of the famous Symbolist artist Gustav Klimt, Schiele's body of landscapes (although only a small collection) evokes Klimt's folkloric tone and flattened compositional space. Schiele was prolific, but his artistic career ended tragically when he fell victim to the Spanish flu in 1918 at just 28 years old.

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Olympia

Edouard Manet. 1863. Now we see the natural antagonist of Cabanel's Venus. The famous Olympia by Edouard Manet, made precisely that same year, caused a scandal for showing a naked woman, just like Cabanel, but devoid of a classical mythological framework and with a much more sensual, almost lascivious attitude. Olympia caused a scandal at the Salon of 1865 and despite her obvious beauty was branded grotesque. Manet reinterprets the classic theme of the female nude without disguises and makes a clear reference to Titian's Venus, Goya's naked maja and Ingres's odalisque. The Olympia is the new contemporary muse and is probably one of the first paintings of modern art. Not only was the confident and direct attitude of this prostitute a provocation, but she was also questioning the audience, since someone has sent her flowers, so anyone in the room could be said to be in love... Olympia is probably looking at him. Manet is known as one of the fathers of Impressionism, although he never defined himself as one: Manet wanted to change classical art for a more contemporary one from within, applying to the Paris Fine Arts Salon, which is why he never participated in none of the 8 exhibitions of the so-called impressionists.

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Gudea, "gushing vase"

This statue represents Gudea, who ruled south of Mesopotamia around 2120 BC He wears a long flax-fringed linen and a broad-brimmed cap which, like the crown in our civilization, signals the royal power. The sovereign stands and carries in his hands a vase from which flow waves of fishy waves. Emblem of the fertility of fresh water, it is the traditional prerogative of the god Enki. This theme of the vase from which exhilarating water comes out is often found in Mesopotamian mythology, perhaps reflecting the account of Genesis 2:10.

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Plaza Tertre

The square is famous for portraitists and painters, who exhibit and paint their works in the open air. It is one of the most emblematic places in Montmartre and one of the main tourist attractions in Paris. It is a memory of the Parisian bohemia of the 19th and early 20th centuries, where Montmartre was the cradle of Impressionism. At the beginning of the 20th century, various poor painters who later became known worldwide, such as Picasso and Utrillo, lived in the Plaza de Tertre or nearby. The oldest restaurant 'À la Mère Catherine' was founded in 1793 and is still there. Picturesque neighborhood, it is a bit of a tourist catcher. If you want to dine in the neighborhood, there are other alternatives on Calle des Abesses. Historical also because in 1871 it will be the origin of the Paris Commune when General Lecomte tries to come look for cannons that were stored on the hill, and a popular revolt rises up and the revolution that will last 2 months will begin. Also important because in 1898 a vehicle piloted by Louis Renault, its builder, reached the plaza for the first time.

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French Academy

The Académie Française, located in Paris, is a prestigious and emblematic institution of French culture. Founded in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, its mission is to ensure the conservation and promotion of the French language. The Academy is made up of forty members, called the 'Immortals', who are elected for life by their peers. These members are renowned writers, poets, philosophers and intellectuals, who contribute to the enrichment of the French language. The Académie Française building is a magnificent mansion located on the left bank of the Seine, in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. It is easily recognizable thanks to its neoclassical facade and its golden dome. The interior of the Academy is just as impressive, with its ornate rooms and libraries full of ancient and precious books. During your visit, you will be able to discover the famous meeting room, where members of the Academy meet every week to debate and discuss topics related to the French language. You can also admire the gallery of busts, which houses marble portraits of the most illustrious academicians. The Académie Française regularly organizes cultural events, such as conferences, exhibitions and literary prize ceremonies. These events are open to the public and constitute an excellent opportunity to discover the richness of the French language and to meet personalities from the world of literature and culture. For lovers of French literature, a visit to the Académie Française is essential during a stay in Paris. It is a place steeped in history and knowledge, where the French language is celebrated and preserved with passion by the country's greatest writers and intellectuals.

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The Scribe sat cross-legged

The scribe in Egypt was a central character. The one that controls the writing, the one that allows knowledge and legends to be spread throughout the kingdom. He was a public official, but not like the others. In any case, this scribe statue represents a very important character of his time: he is not in any way a public official like the others. Being represented as a scribe was a mark of belonging to the social elite of the Old Kingdom. The sons of the pharaohs were often represented in this way. Because of the very high quality of detail seen in this sculpture, it is thought that the person represented here is probably not a scribe but a child of a pharaoh of the IV or V Dynasty.

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St. Peter's Square

St. Peter's Square is a large square located directly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the papal enclave within Rome, directly west of the Borgo neighborhood or rione. Both the square and the basilica are named after Saint Peter, an apostle of Jesus and the first Catholic Pope. In the center of the square stands an ancient Egyptian obelisk, erected on the current site in 1586. Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed the square nearly 100 years later, including the massive Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, that embrace visitors in "the maternal arms of Mother Church." A granite fountain built by Bernini in 1675 coincides with another fountain designed by Carlo Maderno in 1613. The open space in front of the basilica was redesigned by Gian Lorenzo Bernini from 1656 to 1667, under the direction of Pope Alexander VII, as a proper courtyard, designed "so that the greatest number of people could see the Pope give his blessing." . from the middle of the church façade or from a window in the Vatican Palace" (Norwich 1975 p 175). Bernini had been working on the interior of St. Peter's for decades; he now brought order to the space with his renowned colonnades, using the Tuscan form of Doric, the simplest order in the classical vocabulary, so as not to compete with Carlo Maderno's palace-like façade, but employed it on an unprecedented colossal scale to fit the space and evoke a sense of wonder.

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La tumba by Theodore Gericault

The romantic painter Gericault died at the age of 33 in 1871. He is especially famous for his masterpiece "Draft of the Medusa" and his tumultuous and intense life led him to embody for his contemporaries the myth of the romantic artist. If you doubted that Père Lachaise was an open-air art gallery, take a look at this tomb: it's a romantic masterpiece in itself. It is guarded by a bronze of Gericault himself, holding the attributes of its artist. On the side there is a reproduction of the Medusa Raft. the original can be seen in the Louvre museum.

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Basilica of Saint Peter

Papal St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, or simply St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome. Designed primarily by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most recognized work of Renaissance architecture and the largest church in the world. While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter's is considered one of the holiest Catholic shrines. It has been described as "having a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the largest of all the churches of Christendom" Catholic tradition holds that the Basilica is the burial place of Saint Peter, one of the Apostles of Jesus and also the first Pope. St. Peter's tomb is supposedly directly below the main altar of the Basilica. For this reason, many Popes have been buried at St Peter's since the early Christian period, and there has been a church on this site since the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great. The construction of the current basilica, which would replace the 4th century AD St. Peter's Basilica, began on April 18, 1506 and was completed on November 18, 1626.

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Van Gogh's House

Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh's House in Montmartre, Paris, is an enchanting place that pays homage to Vincent van Gogh's lasting influence on art and culture. Although Van Gogh did not live in this house, it was created to capture his creative spirit and his close connection to the bohemian district of Montmartre. Located in a picturesque street, the Maison de Van Gogh is a charming building that transports you to the vibrant era when the artist left his mark. The authentic interiors are decorated with reproductions of his works, evoking the bright colors and bold brushstrokes that characterize his style. Each room is carefully furnished to reflect the artistic atmosphere that prevailed at the time. The museum adjoining Van Gogh's House houses a varied collection of works by the painter, highlighting his artistic development. You will be able to admire emblematic paintings such as "The Starry Night" and "The Sunflowers", as well as drawings and letters that reveal the deep thoughts and emotions of the artist. Each piece is accompanied by detailed explanations, allowing a better understanding of Van Gogh's creative process. The district of Montmartre itself, where the House of Van Gogh is located, is an inexhaustible source of inspiration for artists from all over the world. Its narrow streets, bustling cafes and bohemian life continue to perpetuate the creative spirit that once attracted Van Gogh. You can stroll through the alleys, visit artists' studios and enjoy the breathtaking view from the Montmartre hill. In addition to its role as a museum, the House of Van Gogh organizes workshops and special events dedicated to art and creativity. You can take painting classes, attend lectures, or even create your own masterpiece inspired by Van Gogh. Van Gogh's House in Montmartre offers a unique immersion in the artist's universe, combining the charm of the district with Van Gogh's exceptional artistic heritage. It is a place where you can feel the passion and emotion that animated this legendary artist, while celebrating the artistic richness of Montmartre. Van Gogh's bedroom, where he created many of his masterpieces, is particularly captivating. Period furniture, warm colors and authentic decorative elements allow you to immerse yourself in the intimacy of the artist. We feel the creative energy that inhabited Van Gogh as he sought to capture the beauty of the world around him. The museum adjoining the House of Van Gogh presents a collection of works by the painter as well as temporary exhibitions dedicated to his life and his artistic heritage. You can admire some of his most famous paintings, which reflect his distinctive style and innovative techniques. Each vibrant brushstroke and burst of color testifies to the passion and emotion that drove the artist. As you walk around Van Gogh's House, you can explore the landscapes that inspired many of the painter's paintings. Wheat fields, green hills and picturesque alleys will offer you an intimate connection with the environment that fueled the imagination of Van Gogh. Van Gogh's House is much more than just a museum. It is a place where history, art and emotion come together to offer visitors an immersive and moving experience. By discovering the places that shaped the life and work of this artistic genius, one feels a deep closeness to Van Gogh and his extraordinary contribution to the history of art.

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Tomb of Luís de Camões

The tomb of Luís de Camões was placed here in 1940. It was the first in one of the side chapels, at the end of the 19th century, solemnly carried in a river procession on the occasion of the third centenary of the poet's death. . Luís de Camões was the best Portuguese poet and one of the most important in European literature. He was the author of the work Os Lusíadas, an epic poem published in 1572, whose central action is the discovery of the sea route to India, and around which he describes other episodes of Portuguese history, which glorify the Portuguese people. Luís de Camões traveled to the East on a Portuguese ship in 1553, spent several years and returned alone in 1567. He died in 1580. The tombstone was carved from limestone in 1894 by Costa Mota (uncle). It has neomanueline decoration with elements related to the life and achievements of this character and the History of Portugal. It sits on six stone lions and measures 2.50 m long by 1 meter wide. At the top, there is a 1.75 m statue, with its hands crossed, with its head resting on a stone cushion. Camões dresses as a knight and wears a laurel wreath on his head. On the side is inscribed with gold letters a legend with phrases taken from the Lusiads.

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Coronation of the Virgin

The inscription at the bottom, which was partially restored in the 19th century, shows that the large altarpiece was commissioned by Zanobi di Cecco del Frasca for the main altar of the church in the Camaldolese abbey of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Florence and that it was Painted by Don Lorenzo, a monk who lived in the abbey. The date of the inscription, February 1413, corresponds, according to our current calendar, to February 1414, since it was not until the 18th century that the year began in Florence, on March 25, the feast of the Annunciation. The altarpiece is large in size, rich in composition and sumptuously decorated. Christ and the Virgin are seated on a throne, while the son crowns Mary before the angels and numerous saints, kneeling at the sides of the painting. These include, dressed in the white robes of the Camaldolese order, Saint Benedict, on the left, and Saint Romuald on the right, respectively, the founder of Western monasticism and the Camaldolese order. The scene, which is a single scene, despite the three-part form of the altarpiece, is located on a starry rainbow, the symbolic representation of the celestial spheres that formed the universe, according to medieval cosmology. Within the pinnacles above the main scene is the Annunciation, with God the Father in the center, while at the bottom, the predella, with mixtilinear tiles typical of Gothic decorations, shows the Nativity of Jesus and the Adoration of the Magi in the Center, and four episodes from the life of Saint Benedict on the sides. Lorenzo Monaco, one of the main exponents of late Gothic painting in Florence, in addition to being a well-known miniature artist, was able to put his personal figurative language at the service of Calmaldolese spirituality, demonstrating the sense of transcendence expressed in the Intense and reflective faces of the saints present at this sacred event, thanks to the slender shapes of the bodies and the sophisticated linear intervals of the clothing.

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Sarcophagus Ramses III

This red granite box once contained the same coffin of Pharaoh Ramses III. The decoration of this monolithic block is organized around the great winged figure of Isis at the feet of the deceased and that of Nephthys at its head. Both long sides are recorded with scenes taken from the 'Book of Hidden Cameras' (the Amduat). The decoration begins near the figure of Nephthys on the head of the king, with the seventh hour of the Amduat along the right side (looking from the head to the feet), and continuing with the eighth hour along the left side. Around the base of the coffin is the motif of the facade of the palace - a relic of sarcophagi of the Old Kingdom. As the pharaoh was associated with the sun god and his dangerous journey through the night, the royal tomb presented representations of this recurring event. The Egyptians imagine the sun traveling underground in a boat during the twelve hours of the night. The night sun was represented as a man with the head of a ram. Each hour, that is, each stage of his day, was marked by a particular event. For example, in the seventh hour, an evil snake from Egypt tries to stop the sun in its race. The sun-god is portrayed armed with knives to destroy it. The left side represents the eighth hour: the creatures of the underworld are represented in the lower register. After the New Kingdom, some of these texts (especially the Amduat) were also used for the benefit of the priests and soldiers who were at the peak of their influence at that time.

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Moulin rouge

Joseph Oller, Charles Zidler

The Moulin Rouge, located in the heart of the Montmartre district in Paris, is a famous cabaret emblematic of Parisian nightlife. Since its opening in 1889, this entertainment mecca has captivated generations of entertainment enthusiasts, attracting visitors from all over the world. With its recognizable red facade, the Moulin Rouge is a symbol of glamor and exuberance. The sumptuous interior of the cabaret is a real delight for the senses. Mirrored walls, sparkling chandeliers and red velvet seats create an opulent and intimate atmosphere. The highlight of the Moulin Rouge is its world famous fairytale revue show. The talented Moulin Rouge dancers, known as "the Doriss Girls", present spectacular choreographies, combining grace, sensuality and virtuosity. Extravagant costumes and lavish sets add a stunning visual dimension to every performance. Upbeat music, performed by a live orchestra, accompanies captivating numbers, ranging from frenzied cancan dances to aerial acrobatics and soulful songs. Talented entertainers, such as singers and comedians, add variety and charm to the show, creating an unforgettable experience. The Moulin Rouge has also been the cradle of many artistic and cultural movements. It inspired famous painters such as Toulouse-Lautrec, who immortalized the lively atmosphere of the cabaret in his iconic works. Today, the Moulin Rouge continues to be an icon of Parisian nightlife. Whether it is to celebrate a special occasion, experience a glamorous evening or simply soak up the unique atmosphere of this legendary establishment, the Moulin Rouge offers an artistic and entertaining experience that transports visitors to another world, full of dreams and of wonder.

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Alcalá Gate

Located in the center of the Plaza de la Independencia, the Puerta de Alcalá is one of the five old royal gates that gave access to the city, built by order of Carlos III to replace a previous one that dated from the 16th century. This monumental gate, inaugurated in 1778, is located next to the Retiro Park and where prominent streets such as Alcalá, Alfonso XII or Serrano converge, and is one of the tourist icons of Madrid. Designed by Francesco Sabatini, it is a granite triumphal arch in a neoclassical style, the first built in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, a precursor to others known as the Arc de Triomphe in Paris or the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. Unlike the Puerta de Toledo or that of San Vicente, it has five openings instead of the usual three. The two facades of which it is composed show different decorations, the interior side being simpler (initially the one facing the city, in which the four virtues appear: Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude) than the exterior, presided over by the royal shield and with greater decorative richness, which was what those who entered Madrid saw.

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Museum of Fine Arts

The Orléans Museum of Fine Arts is a must-see for art lovers and tourists visiting the region. Located in a magnificent 19th century building, the museum houses an extensive collection of artworks spanning from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. When you enter the museum, you will immediately be impressed by the elegance of the architecture and the beauty of the exhibition spaces. The rooms are spacious and well lit, providing an ideal setting for admiring the works of art. The walls are decorated with paintings, sculptures and drawings, creating a captivating artistic atmosphere. The museum's collection is varied and includes masterpieces by great French and international artists. You can discover paintings by Monet, Renoir, Delacroix, Courbet, Picasso and many others. Each room is dedicated to a specific artistic period, allowing visitors to travel through art history. In addition to paintings and sculptures, the museum also displays decorative art objects, such as furniture, ceramics and tapestries. These pieces demonstrate the artisanal know-how and refined aesthetics of different eras. The Orléans Museum of Fine Arts also offers temporary exhibitions that highlight contemporary artists and current artistic trends. These exhibitions offer a modern and dynamic perspective on art, complementing the museum's permanent collection. To make your visit even more enriching, the museum offers guided tours and educational activities for children and adults. You will be able to deepen your knowledge of the works on display and go behind the scenes of the museum. In conclusion, the Orléans Museum of Fine Arts is a fascinating place that will delight art lovers of all ages. Whether you are passionate about classical art or contemporary art, you will find here an exceptional collection that will amaze and inspire you.

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Death and resurrection (Passion Facade)

On the upper level death and burial are represented. The first scene in this level is the one on the left. We see the soldiers risking the clothes of Christ. The main scene of the set, the crucifixion of Jesus, appears in the center. Look at the iron cross. It is not a vertical cross but horizontal and nailed to the wall. Christ hangs in the air, lightly resting his feet on the stone and above him, the torn veil of the temple. The three Marys and Saint John appear again. In the last scene, the Burial scene, Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus place the body of Jesus in the tomb, next to the Virgin Mary and an egg, as a symbol of the resurrection. The sculptural cycle continues on the pediment. Observe a large window made up of several stained glass windows. This is the first work by Joan Vila i Grau in the temple, and it represents the Resurrection of Christ. On it there is an almost abstract sculpture of a dove that represents the Holy Spirit.

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The intervention of a Sabina woman

The intervention of a Sabina woman, Jacques-Louis David. The central woman is stopping a bloodbath. She belonged to the town of Sabines and had been kidnapped by the Romans. When the Sabines try to rescue her, a war between them takes place. At that time, she intervenes between her husband, the king of Rome, and her father, the king of the Sabines. If we look at the details, we see that the painting is located in Rome, because you can see the walls of the Capitol. A woman in the center is pointing to a child, another is pulling towards the feet of a warrior. David was a French painter and the neoclassical father of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In his painting, he always sought inspiration in Greek sculptural and mythological models, based on his austerity and severity. He was very active during the French Revolution, especially under the government of Robespierre and Napoleon Bonaparte. This picture is created exactly under the Revolution to call for the reconciliation of the French people after this huge civil conflict. This picture is important because it inspires that necessary reconciliation for the French people. One can be seen in the painting that a rider on the right is sheathing his sword, while in the distance helmets and hands are raised in peace. The female figure is also crucial because it is she who begins the search for peace, something that is not necessarily repeated in all David's works.

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Sphinx

Sphinx (from the Greek Σφίγξ) is the Hellenized name of a fabulous being that is usually represented, generally, like a recumbent lion with a human head. The sphinxes were devised by the ancient Egyptians and are part of their complex mythology; They also have cultural relevance in the mythology of the ancient Greeks. The sphinxes were a symbol of royalty, as they represented the strength and power of the lion, and life after death, which is why they appear in many relief tombs. During the New Kingdom, some gods were represented as sphinxes, like Amun. The largest and one of the oldest sculptural representations is the Great Sphinx found in Giza. In the last periods, it was usual to place sphinxes on both sides of the avenues that led to the temples. Between the precincts of the temple of Ammon in Karnak and that of Amun in Luxor, there is a processional avenue (dromos) several kilometers long flanked by hundreds of sphinxes with heads of rams or humans. The Egyptian sphinx has been changing throughout history, changing its appearance according to the cultural trends of the moment, even some with feminine aspect.

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Fuente de Latona

We are in a post-Renaissance era, the myths of Greece and Rome were popular among the members of the Court. Each fountain or pond will tell us an episode that will have symbolism or importance for the King. This is the Latona Fountain. It reminds us of the episode of the war of the fronds and his first childhood trauma. At the age of 5, Louis The French administrations at the hands of the nobles want more power at the expense of the king. They enter the Louvre and he, along with his mother and brother, have to escape during the night. Only after 4 years will the king's supporters win and Louis will be able to return to the Louvre. Louis XIV realizes that his life will be summarized in a continuous fight to usurp his power, to kill him. Therefore, he must transform himself into God, and the best way to do so was to demonstrate his power by creating the gardens of Versailles, something that only God knows and can do. The myth of Latona, for Rome, or Leto, for Greece, is represented in the fountain. The myth tells that one day Latona is giving her children a drink in a river: Artemis, goddess of hunting, and Apollo, god of light, of beauty. There are farmers on the other side of the river who move the water and make it cloudy with mud, they smear the water so that the children cannot drink. Zeus (Greece), or Jupiter (Rome), the father of the children, sends them a divine punishment, a lightning bolt, turning them into toads, turtles and frogs, a precise moment that we can observe well at the fountain. This is directly related to Luis' childhood trauma. The waters muddy him, that is, the peasants are those nobles who try to usurp his power. At the age of 18, when he became king, he told his nobles that it was a shame you failed to steal everything from me, because now I am in charge, everything happens through me, I am the state: “l'Etat c'est moi.” An absolutist monarchy begins in France, a reign for 55 years where the nobles are brought to Versailles to keep an eye on them.

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The Porta Marina gate

Similar to a bastion perched on the edge of the plane, the gate provides access to the west of the city and is the most impressive among the seven gates of Pompeii. The name derives from the fact that the exit road led to the sea. The design with a concrete barrel vault, which is a mixture of mortar and stones, dates back to the colony of Silla (80 BC). The door has two fornix, the main one is higher, intended for the passage of horses and pack animals; the smaller one, further ahead, intended for pedestrian crossing. The city walls that can be seen today, already in place in the 6th century BC, are more than 3200 m long: they consist of a double wall with a walkway, protected by an embankment. Twelve towers, more on the north side where the flat terrain made Pompeii more vulnerable, guaranteed defense. The definitive entry of the city into the Roman orbit diminished the importance of the walls, sometimes reused and destroyed to make room for homes.

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Naked man sitting

In the radical and obsessive ways in which he imagined himself, Egon Schiele staged his body, so to speak, and through facial expressions and bodily gesticulations, pushed it to the limits of what is anatomically possible. An early highlight of this was the 1910 painting Seated Male Nude (Self-Portrait). The 20-year-old artist appeared naked, in an almost painful physical position. The skin, and with it the sensual surface of the body, is shown with every tendon, muscle and bone emphasized, making the body appear almost skinned. He projected this fragmented body onto the canvas with no apparent narrative context. The yellow-green flesh, signal red eyes, nipples, navel and genitals are a far cry from any naturalistic color scheme. Schiele's search for the ego, pursued in countless self-portraits, forms a reflection on the quintessence of human existence, in which Eros and Thanatos play the main roles.

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Saint John of Montmartre Church

Curious for its style and construction materials, St Jean de Monmartre is notable as the first example of reinforced concrete in church construction. Built from 1894 to 1904, it was designed by architect Anatole de Baudot, a student of Viollet-le-Duc and Henri Labrouste. The brick structure and ceramic tile cladding presents Art Nouveau design features, while exploiting the superior structural qualities of reinforced concrete with lightness and transparency. The Art Nouveau stained glass window was executed by Jac Galland. At that time the Sacred Heart was still under construction and the old Saint-Pierre church could not accommodate all the parishioners. Then the priest Sobaux asked for the creation of a new church. The location greatly complicated the project: small in size, irregular in shape, with a steep slope and stability problems, it required all the skill of the architect Anatole de Baudot. The reinforced concrete structure followed a system developed by engineer Paul Cottancin. The construction was accompanied by skepticism about the properties of the new material, which violated the rules established for the construction of unreinforced masonry. A lawsuit delayed construction, resulting in a demolition order that was not resolved until 1902, when construction resumed.

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King's Garden

The King's Garden was built in 1817. Another time and another king. The king was Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI who had tragically died by guillotine. Louis XVIII was king during 1814 until 1824, in what was called the Restoration period. In that century another type of landscaping was popular, the so-called "English style" layout. Unlike French gardens, the idea was to have an irregular conception, with winding paths and apparently undomesticated vegetation, giving a natural impression. Terrain features, such as slopes, are preserved and exploited. The itineraries are not marked, since the walk through an English garden leaves room for surprise and discovery to promote a kind of "poetic wandering." We can imagine Louis XVIII walking through this garden, one of his favorites, and remembering with nostalgia that in these same places his brother was going to be searched and then taken to Paris and face his tragic fate under the guillotine.

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The palace

The palace already existed before Louis XIV and was a hunting palace for his father Louis XIII, a lover of this sport. The inner courtyard was reserved only for the royal family: mother, queen, favorites of the king, etc. The guests, as well as us, went through the gardens to find Luis and be able to exchange a word with him during the day. In front of the royal gate, the great golden gate at the beginning, you can see a clock that points directly to the east. Below this, were the king's chambers. Each day began with a ceremony that was the "Petit réveil"; or little awakening, where the first rays of sun are seen through the king's window and a chosen part of the court is prepared for the magical moment of the day when Luis opens his eyes for the first time. The Sun King begins to illuminate the world, and his smile illuminates France, like Apollo. Then another ceremony followed, called the "Grand Réveil", or great awakening, where another part of the court helped the King prepare to begin the day. By installing the central government in Versailles, Louis XIV forced the court to live in Versailles. Not only to be flattered, but to control them, spy on them and avoid all kinds of conspiracies. The palace is transformed into a machine to domesticate the nobility. The Palace is also a symbol for the rest of the European courts. It is a sign of internal peace, since if you observe it is not a protected castle. It became a symbol of French power and its king because the defeated in the battles came to Versailles to sign the surrender. Their humiliation began by crossing from the war room to the peace room, where they could see the most spectacular gallery, the Gallery of Mirrors. They could themselves observe his defeated face, and at the same time be amazed at a king who could concentrate 357 mirrors in a single room, a symbol of wealth at the time. During the French Revolution, the Palace is looted in order to obtain riches to finance wars against other European powers. Statues are melted and furniture is sold. These humiliations in Versailles to other European powers will cost the French that after losing the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the Prussians choose to sign the treaty of unconditional surrender of the French in Versailles itself. But life goes around and after winning France with the allies in the First World War, the French sign the Treaty of Versailles, humiliating the Germans to costly war reparations. Versailles will always remain a symbol of power. Finally in 1979 the gardens were registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In 1992, the reconstruction of the gardens began, which suffered because in 1999 a devastating storm destroyed a large part.

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Facade

King D. Manuel decided to build the grandiose project of the Jerónimos Monastery and the new Church of Santa María de Belém on Restelo beach, where there was already a small church that assisted sailors. El Restelo was at that time a place of embarkation and disembarkation for sailors setting out in search of new worlds, and this church intended to mark it as a New Bethlehem, a new starting point for Christianity. The façade of the Jerónimos Monastery is more than 300 meters, in which the 200-meter body with its arcades stands out, where the National Archaeological Museum is today installed, followed by the body of the Church, behind which is the cloister of the century XVI. Initially, the long gallery was opened, allowing the movement of people and wagons, and was intended to be a warehouse for the registration and contracting of companies in India. On the upper floor came the construction of the monks' dormitory, which numbered nearly one hundred. Around the monastery, at that time, there was a large orchard and orchard that extended along the Ajuda slope. The church was built between 1502 and 1572 in three successive works. Master Diogo Boitaca directed the construction until 1517, when he was replaced by João de Castilho. João de Castilho is credited with the complicated and admirable task of closing the vaults, which probably occurred in 1522, and the construction of the so-called south portal, the side door of the church facing the river. Between 1565 and 1572, new work was carried out, delivered to Jerónimo de Rouo, to reconstruct the main chapel. Already in the 19th century, a final intervention took place, in a revivalist style, which introduced significant changes to the façade, including the construction of the miter-shaped dome of the church that replaced the old pyramidal bell tower. At that time, the introduction of a whole series of decorative elements related to the sea and seafaring was also introduced; Ropes, fish, anchors, shells, ships and caravels. Contrary to the general idea, the maritime-themed decorations do not originate from the initial construction, but were added by the restorers of the 18th century.

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Birth Facade

You are facing the Nativity or Levante façade. It was built during Gaudí's lifetime, in fact he dedicated much of his 45 years of working at the Sagrada Familia to it. A few days before he died, he was able to see the completed façade, which, along with the crypt and the apse, were the only standing parts of the temple in those days. The Nativity façade narrates the main events of Jesus' childhood and is a magnificent hymn to life and creation. As you can see, the façade is divided into three doors, which correspond to the three theological virtues: From left to right, Hope, Charity and Faith. The porticos are separated by two large columns, dedicated to Joseph and Mary, which end in the shape of a palm tree and on which several angels sound their triumphant trumpets. The bases of the columns are supported by the shell of two turtles, one of land and the other of sea, as a symbol of the unalterability of time. In the center, above the main door and between the four towers, there is a cypress with green leaves, it is the tree of life, it represents eternity, the legacy of life and the triumph of Jesus, that is why it is full of doves, the faithful who turn to God. Crowned with a T-shaped cross (Tau), symbolizing God the Father, with X-shaped diagonals (Khi) representing the symbol of the name of Christ and finally a dove with open wings in allusion to the Holy Spirit. The façade culminates with the bell towers dedicated to San Matías, San Judas Tadeo, San Simón and San Barnabas.

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City hall

The Madrid City Council is the body in charge of the government and administration of the municipality of Madrid, Spain. It is chaired by the corresponding mayor. It is the body of maximum political representation of citizens in the municipal government, exercises the powers that are expressly assigned to it and is made up of the mayor and the councilors, without prejudice to the attendance at its sessions and the intervention of the members in its deliberations. not elected from the Governing Board.

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The Merry Fiddler

At first glance, this painting seems like a casual celebration of the good life. In a luxurious costume, possibly Italian, a musician looks out the window. He seems to be speaking to someone, proposing a toast. However, 17th century Dutch paintings like this one often contain a moral: 'remember, there is more to life than just partying and drinking. Moderation!', its authors used to say. A fan of the baroque style of the Italian painter Caravaggio, the Dutch painter Gerrit Van Honthorst took ideas from the tenebrist technique to give a playful character to his paintings. The artist stood out for painting night scenes with artificial light, which earned him the nickname 'Gerardo of the night'. Theatrics and plays of light are its distinctive notes, as demonstrated in this work. Here, the musician tries to interact with the viewer to make a toast. Honthorst's performance is so realistic and convincing that the violinist seems to have stepped out of the frame of the painting to join us.

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Julius Caesar

Nicolas COUSTOU Ordered in 1696 for the park of Versailles to make during the Annibal of Slodtz. Paid in 1713. Transferred from the Salle des Antiques du Louvre to the Jardin des Tuileries in 1722, date which is worn on the statue. The terracotta sketch is exposed in the Girardon crypt. Nicolas Coustou comes from a family of wood carvers. He is the son of Claudine Coysevox, sister of Antoine Coysevox, and François Coustou, a modest woodcarver from Lyon. He returned to Paris in 1687 and presented his reception piece a few years later; it will be a bas-relief and not a statue in the round. It is the principal artistic actor of the policy of the kingdom of Louis XIV, Charles Le Brun, who asks him to realize his piece of reception from a subject and a drawing that he imposes on him. After being struck off the list of approved, it is finally August 29, 1693 that Nicolas Coustou is received at the Academy with a marble bas-relief entitled The God of Health Showing France the Bust of Louis XIV.

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Pixels of Orleans

Pixels d'Orléans is a must-see attraction for tourists visiting Orleans. Located in the heart of the city, this unique place offers an immersive and artistic experience that will delight lovers of art and technology. Pixels d'Orléans is an interactive visual journey that uses image projection and augmented reality to create ephemeral works of art on the facades of historic buildings in the city. Visitors are invited to wander the streets and discover these dazzling visual creations that transform the urban environment into an open-air art gallery. Every evening, at nightfall, Pixels d'Orléans lights up the streets with colorful projections and graphic animations. Buildings become giant canvases on which talented artists project their creations. The images come to life and blend seamlessly with the surrounding architecture, creating a captivating visual experience. The themes of the screenings vary regularly, thus offering visitors a renewed experience with each visit. On some evenings, you can admire enchanting landscapes, historical scenes or abstract creations. Each projection is accompanied by a soundtrack specially designed to reinforce the immersion and emotion felt by the spectators. In addition to projections, Pixels d'Orléans also offers interactive activities for visitors. You can participate in digital creation workshops, where you can learn the techniques used by artists to create these ephemeral works of art. You will also be able to interact with some projections through special mobile applications, which will allow you to control the animations and create your own visual compositions. To fully enjoy your visit to Pixels d'Orléans, it is recommended that you allow enough time to explore all the projections and participate in the interactive activities. Be sure to bring your camera to capture those magical moments and share your memories with loved ones. Don't forget to consult the program of screenings in advance, as times may vary depending on the season. Pixels d'Orléans was created by a team of passionate artists and technicians, who worked closely with the city of Orléans to bring this unique project to life. Their goal is to promote digital art and create an artistic experience accessible to everyone. Thanks to their talent and creativity, they have transformed Orléans into a veritable open-air art gallery, offering visitors an unforgettable visual experience.

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Winged Androcephalic Bull

After a period of crisis, the Assyrian empire resumed expansion under the reigns of Teglat-Phalasar III (744-727) and Sargon II (721-705). The latter can then undertake to build a prestigious capital, named in his honor Dûr-Sharrukîn, "the fortress of Sargon" (now Khorsabad). Everything is marked by the seal of gigantism and royal majesty. The city is surrounded by a powerful quadrangular rampart pierced by seven monumental gates and contains in its heart a citadel, also fortified. It houses a vast palatial complex, built on a terrace spanning the outer wall. The gates of the city, as well as the important entrances of the palace, especially those of the throne-room, are guarded by winged bulls with man's heads, ancient protective geniuses charged to prevent any threat. Much larger than Nimrud's, they are directly integrated into the architecture since the top of their body serves as a base for seating the raw brick vault of the doorways. These hybrid colossi, wearing a heavy horned tiara, emblem of the divine, present a human face animated by a benevolent smile. Designed to be seen both in profile (in motion) and front (at a standstill), they are presented with a total of 5 legs. A mixture of strength and serenity, these awesome protective genies gave the measure of the power of an Assyrian empire then in full expansion.

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Sanctuary of Venus

The Sanctuary of Venus occupies a spectacular artificial terrace that offers excellent views of the Gulf of Naples and from a distance overlooks the bay where the port would be located. Venus was the patron goddess of Pompeii who named the colony at its conclusion (80 BC), she was already worshiped in pre-Roman times and later she was also the patron goddess of navigation. The earthquake of 62 AD and those that followed the eruption caused the destruction of the temple whose reconstruction had not yet been completed in 79 AD. The first sanctuary dates back to the 2nd century BC. C. and consisted of a space surrounded by porticos in the center of which was the temple. What can be seen today dates back to the early imperial era. A large gold lamp weighing 896 grams was found during excavations in the 19th century, in a small temporary chapel leaning against the back of the temple cell, which was a gift from Emperor Nero, and is now located in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples. .

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The Seated Scribe

The seated scribe is one of the masterpieces of the art of the Ancient Egyptian Empire. It summarizes all the wonderfulness of this art and the symbols of the importance of the scribe. It is a frontal statue, a common characteristic of the Egyptian statues. The position of the scribe, seated cross-legged on a base painted black, represents the very act of writing. Once he should have had an aromatic cane in his right hand that was used to write and we can still see the white papyri partially unrolled. His position is unique mixing calm, rigidity and an incredible simplicity in the act of his craft. His face is sharp, his nose and mouth are well aligned and a mark of paint marks the eyebrows. The eyes, particularly admirable, are embedded in the orbits and consist of white magnesite and rock crystal, conferring a great presence to the eye. His body, especially the torso, is marked by a certain strength, with protuberances in the belly and hips, however, the hands are very thin, all fingers are subtly individualized showing how important they were to write. Despite the general attitude is still a little stiff, the realism of the figure, with the quality of the modeling of the face, hands and torso, the bright appearance of the character and the beautiful polychrome, totally intact, make this scribe a fundamental work of Egyptian art.

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Place du Martroi

Place du Martroi is an iconic square located in the heart of Orléans, France. It is surrounded by historic buildings and offers a charming and lively atmosphere. In the center of the square stands an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, the city's famous heroine. The statue is a strong symbol of the history and resistance of Orléans. The square is entirely pedestrianized, making it an ideal place to stroll and enjoy the atmosphere. The cafes and restaurants lining the square offer a variety of cuisines, from traditional French dishes to international flavors. It's the perfect place to enjoy a delicious meal outdoors while people-watching. Place du Martroi is also surrounded by boutiques and stores, offering visitors the opportunity to go shopping. Here you will find fashion boutiques, jewelry stores, bookstores and much more. It's a great place to find unique souvenirs or simply wander around and discover the city's hidden gems. The architecture of the buildings surrounding the square is impressive. You will be able to admire facades dating from the 19th century, with magnificent architectural details. Some buildings house museums and art galleries, providing culture lovers with an enriching experience. A tip to make the most of Place du Martroi is to visit during the special events taking place there. The square regularly hosts concerts, festivals and markets, creating a festive and friendly atmosphere. Attending one of these events will allow you to fully experience the lively atmosphere of the square and discover the local culture. The author of Place du Martroi is the city of Orléans, which has worked to preserve and highlight this historic place. The square is the result of a collective effort to provide locals and visitors with a pleasant space in which to relax and enjoy themselves.

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Mosaic of Christ

This portrait is probably one of the oldest representations of Christ. Found in a Roman villa in Dorset, England, Christ is portrayed as a blonde, shaven man wearing a tunic and cloak. Behind his head are the letters chi (X) and rho (P), forming the Greek word Christos. The piece is part of a larger mosaic, which also contains pagan elements, such as the Greek hero Bellerophon riding Pegasus and slaying the monstrous chimera. In 312 AD, Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and the religion began to spread freely throughout the Roman Empire. Britain was at that point a remote province of the empire that would be abandoned 100 years later. This mosaic may have come from the dining room of a villa or the church owned by one of the British Roman aristocratic families. The combination of Christian and pagan imagery was common in this period and Bellerophon slaying the monster may represent Christ's triumph over death and evil.

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Hercules fighting Acheloüs metamorphosed into a snake

François-Joseph BOSIO. The plaster model was exhibited at the Salon of 1814. The subject is taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses: Achelous was the rival of Hercules for the sake of Deianira; during the fight, Achelous turned into a serpent but was defeated by Hercules. Thus Hercules was fond of Dejanire. Subsequently, trying to revive the love he had for him, Dejanire offered Hercules a tunic impregnated with the blood of Nessus who, instead of being a love potion, turned out to be a burning poison.

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Historical Archive of the City of Barcelona

The House of the Archdeacon is the headquarters of the Historical Archive of the City of Barcelona. The ecclesiastical residence was built using remains of the old Roman wall. It was built in a Gothic style evoking Renaissance elements, and is accessed by a wooden staircase and from the outside you can see the interior patio with a fountain. The Historical Archive dates back to 1249, however since 1919 it has been located in its current headquarters, when it was acquired by the City Council, and comprises Medieval and Modern historical archives, graphic and oral collections. Previously the house was the headquarters of the Barcelona Bar Association, during which time it underwent numerous renovations. To the right of the entrance, you can see the famous modernist mailbox, a personal touch that the architect Domènech Montaner included when he was in charge of a renovation for the lawyers. The swallows represent freedom and speed, the tortoise and the ivy represent slowness and bureaucratic entanglement. It is said that touching the turtle shell brings good luck and ensures a return visit to the city.

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Easter Island Statue

The Hoa Hakananaiʻa is a moai (monolithic stone statue) built on Easter Island, Chile. Made of basalt, it measures two and a half meters and weighs four tons. Although there is no certainty regarding the symbolic meaning of the moai, there are several theories about these statues. The most widespread of them is that they were carved by the Polynesian inhabitants of Rapa Nui, between the 12th and 17th centuries, as representations of deceased ancestors, so that they projected their mana (supernatural power) onto their descendants. The back of the statue is covered with relief carvings, added at an unknown time after the statue was made. On each side are two facing 'birdmen' (tangata manu), these stylized human figures with beak heads are said to represent frigatebirds. Above these, in the center of the statue's head, is a smaller bird, a tern (manutara). This moai was originally located inside a ceremonial house in Orongo, on Easter Island, but on November 7, 1868 it was stolen and transferred to the English ship HMS Topaze, which later sent it to England.

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Portal principal (occidental)

Before entering the church, admire the main portal. Although smaller and less majestic than the south portal, which is located on the facade facing the river, this is actually the main door of the church, because it is the main door to the main altar. Traditionally, churches were oriented so that the choir faced east and therefore the main door had to face west. Like the main door, it is flanked by statues of the Founding Kings. On the left, King D. Manuel, kneeling behind him, Saint Jerome, his patron saint. On the right, Queen D. María, his second wife, kneeling on a cushion and behind her, standing, Saint John the Baptist. Below the statues, one sees an angel with open arms holding the shield of the respective arms in his right hand and the coins in his left. At the top of the portal there are two stone cherubs holding the arms of Portugal, which were broken from top to bottom when King D. Sebastião died in 1578 in the battle of Alcácer Quibir. In the niches at the top there are scenes from Christian tradition related to the theme of the invocation of this church: on the left, the Annunciation, the angel announces to Mary that she will be the mother of Jesus; in the center the Nativity, the birth of Jesus; and to the right the Epiphany, that is, the Adoration of the Magi. This portal dates back to 1517 and was executed by the French master Nicolau de Chanterenne. In front of this door, a large terreiro was originally extended that ceased to exist with the construction in 1625 of the vestibule that connects the bedroom and the church.

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Stefaneschi triptych

Giotto, 1320. The Stefaneschi triptych is important because it is a work by the great master Giotto that was intended to serve as an altarpiece for one of the altars in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Its name is due to the fact that it was commissioned by Cardinal Giacomo Gaetani Stefaneschi. The altarpiece has political symbolism because it was requested when the papacy was in Avignon, France, and they began to decorate St. Peter's Basilica in order to bring the papacy back to Rome. The great particularity of the work is twofold: that Cardinal Stefaneschi is represented praying on his knees on both sides of the altarpiece in the central part and that the triptych is painted on both sides, in order not only to be seen by the faithful. , but also by the priests. The chosen scenes speak mainly of the apostles Peter and Paul. They respect the inconographic principle of polyptychs, where the main themes of sanctification and the cardinal appear in the center of the faces of the triptych and the terrestrial figures are exposed in the side panels: - In the recto: Christ appears in the center on a throne, surrounded by angels and the side panels expose biblical episodes from the New Testament, mainly images of martyrs and saints. - On the verso: Saint Peter on the throne surrounded by angels and two speakers, while the side panels display the standing saints with their attributes. The depiction of Cardinal Stefaneschi holding this same painting suggests that it originally had a significantly more elaborate frame. The feature of containing a smaller version of itself provides one of the first known Renaissance examples of the so-called "Droste effect", common in medieval art.

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Francesca and Paolo appraised by Dante and Virgil

The full name is the shadows of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta appearing to Dante and Virgilio. Ary Scheffer. Inspired image of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. The image shows the exact moment of a great historical drama described in the book. Accompanied by Virgilio on his trip to hell, both find the couple punished for letting their passion prevail over reason. Francesca, daughter of Guido de Polenta, and wife for reasons of state to a deformed man called Giovanni Malatesta. The drama is triggered when she recognizes that she is in love with Paul, her husband's brother. At the moment they declare their love and both kiss, Giovanni discovers and kills them with his sword. Scheffer makes many copies of this painting in various formats that are exposed around the world, but the one you are observing represents this drama in the largest size that we know.

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Winter Landscape with Ice Skaters

This winter panorama is the work of the Dutch painter Hendrick Avercamp. Made in 1609, it is a painting belonging to the landscape painting movement, which became independent as an autonomous genre in the 17th century precisely in the Netherlands. Avercamp painted many pictures of snowy landscapes, and a typical feature of his early works is the high horizon, which allowed him to focus on dozens of figures at the same time and show details of daily life in winter. There are people who have fun skating, playing kolf, or riding sleighs. For others, the daily work never stops and they are here committed to their work; There is a wood cutter carrying a pile of logs, the eel fisherman carries his trident on his shoulder and a fish in a net, and next to the brewery someone makes a hole in the ice so that water can be extracted and so on. brew beer. Avercamp's bird's eye view also showed other types of details that many might consider indiscreet, such as couples making love, going to the bathroom, a man urinating, and dogs feeding on the carcass of a horse that had died from freezing. Finally, the way the painter has signed his work is also amusing: on a ruined building in the right foreground, the name 'Haenricus Av' appears on the wall as graffiti, with a small figure next to it.

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Hermes Fastening his Sandal

This work is a Roman copy of a Greek work in bronze work by Lysippus. At the moment it is very difficult to get original Greek sculptures, reason why sculptures like the Venus de Milo or the Winged Victory of Samothrace are so important. The original sculpture did not have the trunk of the tree, but it was necessary to add stability when transforming it from bronze into marble. Lysippus was a great sculptor of the antiquity of the IV century a.C. that provided a new model of representing bodies, in particular, thanks to the slender proportions and the precision of the muscles. For example, if you look closely the head is small while the body is eight times its size. Thanks to the position of the inclined body, the statue can be seen from all sides. If you turn around, you will observe that the sculpture is appearing differently. Pliny, a historian of the time, speaks of Lysippus showing his desire to demonstrate the characteristics of men. He said he represented men as they were. For example, Hermes is a God, but he is not presented as God. He allows us to observe a moment, the very moment when the messenger god stops to fasten his sandals like any ordinary man.

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Dalida

Alain Aslan

Dalida's bust, located in Montmartre, Paris, is a moving tribute to one of the most beloved icons of French song. This sculpture dedicated to Dalida, whose real name is Yolanda Cristina Gigliotti, is a symbol of her enduring presence in the bohemian district of Montmartre, where she lived for many years. The bronze bust of Dalida, made by sculptor Alain Aslan, captures the essence of the singer in all her grace and timeless beauty. Her expressive gaze and bewitching smile seem to capture the energy and passion she instilled in her musical career. Located on Place Dalida, the bust attracts fans of the singer from all over the world, as well as the curious who wish to discover this emblematic figure of French music. Visitors gather around the sculpture, sharing memories and anecdotes of the impact Dalida had on their lives. Place Dalida is also a place of commemoration, where fans lay flowers, messages and photos in tribute to the artist. It is a place where emotions intertwine, where music and memories come together to pay tribute to a woman who touched the hearts of so many through her music and her charismatic personality. Dalida's bust is surrounded by the picturesque atmosphere of Montmartre, with its cobbled streets, bustling cafes and talented street performers. You can walk around the neighborhood, steeped in the bohemian spirit that inspired Dalida and many other artistic personalities. Whether you are a Dalida fan, a lover of French music or simply looking for a unique place in Montmartre, the bust of Dalida is a must-see. It symbolizes the passion, grace and lasting legacy of this great artist, while adding a touch of magic to the artistic and romantic atmosphere of Montmartre.

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Lunch on the Grass, Monet

Claude Monet. 1865 a 1866. Monet, as a great admirer of Manet, reinterprets the theme of lunch on the grass in a monumental way. The fragments that we see now were part of a complete composition that was damaged and one of them was even lost due to the deterioration of humidity. A painting of these dimensions with ordinary people, in this case, the painter himself and his family, was not something that was customary and responds to the current of realism strongly promoted by Courbet, whom Monet deeply admired. Monet takes Manet's Luncheon and makes it more contemporary, more impressionistic. He removes the naked figures, turning it into an everyday scene, with more intense colors and with light as the main protagonist. As a good impressionist, Monet began to paint this painting in front of the scene, outdoors... Imagine the painter moving this monumental canvas to protect it every night, a task that caused him more than one ailment and a cold. The enthusiastic impressionist finished the painting in a studio, in classical style.

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The Oath of the Horatii

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, revolutionaries began to use important episodes of Roman history that could serve their ideology. The painter Jacques-Louis David will be one of the leaders of this "neoclassical" movement and will undoubtedly be among the most outstanding. This episode shows the moment that three Horatti sons solemnly swear to their father fidelity to Rome. Then they would go to fight the inhabitants of the city of Alba and only one will return victorious. When he comes back, he kills his sister because she mourned the death of her fiancé, an inhabitant of that city. The scene is like watching a play. It shows us a rather sober republican house where male characters are defined with straight lines and warm and strong colors, while women with soft lines and lighter colors. David transports us to the past and shows us a photo, a unique scene of that unique moment.

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Diane of Versailles

by Leocares This marble sculpture is located in the center of the banquet hall of King Henry II. It was gifted to Henry by Pope Paul 4th in 1556! This means that we need friends like the Pope to receive such wonderful gifts. As Diana, the goddess of hunting is in the center of the room, it highlights her special story with the King of France, who was a hunter and who probably enjoyed this sculpture a lot. The Greeks call Diana: Artemis. Its attributes such as its bow and arrow, a deer and the crown of the half-moon also help us to identify her. The sculpture has been moved over the centuries, being first hosted at Fontainebleau. When it was exhibited in Versailles, it became known as 'Diane de Versailles'. Later, it was taken over by the revolutionaries and became part of the Louvre collection in 1798. The details are spectacular. The sense of immediacy that the artisan captures can be seen in her pose and clothing. Diana's dress catches a gust of wind as it moves through an imaginary forest. The name of this room, the Caryatids room, is taken from the four imposing columns of ladies holding up the intricately carved balcony in one of the entrances to the hall. Here is where the musicians played music to entertain the king's guests. You can also see similar elegant figures on the facades of classical Greek temples. Over time their arms have been lost, while here, in Henry's room, these ladies' arms have been cut off deliberately to imitate the original Greek works'.

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Apoxyomenos

Apoxyomeno in its Greek name, but for many others this is simply the “Scraper”. Today there are clearly pieces missing from this work, but if all the details were there we could see one of the traditional and favorite themes of Ancient Greek sculpture, which represents a young athlete surprised cleaning the dust, sweat and ointment from his body with a scraper. with the small curved instrument that the Romans called strigil. There are various Apoxyomena that have been discovered in the world, each one with different variations. The one you are looking at, the Apoxyomenos of Lysippus, is the only complete specimen of this type. Most art historians maintain that it is a copy of another lost bronze statue from ancient Greece made by Lysippus in the 4th century BC. It was discovered in 1849 in the Roman neighborhood of Trastevere, and the following year the German archaeologist August Braun recognized in the statue that copy of a bronze of Lysippus cited by Pliny the Elder in his work Natural History. According to Pliny, the Emperor Tiberus himself would have had her transported to his room. Looking at the statue we are impressed by its size. It measures 2.05 meters high. It has undergone various restorations, some destroyed but what remains is mainly that of one of its hands. We invite you to turn around and observe the work. It is a work to be seen in a circular way, having a different impression from each angle. He also uses contraposto, the technique that invites movement. If you notice, the statue is supported on one leg, while the other is moved to one side, receiving part of the weight.

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The Singel Bridge at the Paleisstraat in Amsterdam

Do you remember Breitner, the 'people's painter'? This painting is one of his masterpieces. On a dark and cloudy winter day, people cross Amsterdam's Singel Bridge; The floor and ceilings are covered with wet, grayish snow, many people pass by, on the left side some girls are playing and on the right side a maid appears, lifting her skirt slightly so as not to get dirty. Here, on this bridge, the daily life of the city is represented, an essential theme of Breitner's work. In the foreground, in the center, there is a woman dressed in the latest Paris fashion, with an orange-brown pelina and a hat with rooster feathers. It seems like the woman is reaching out to her audience directly. Certainly the way he walks towards us and the way the image is cropped gives it a photographic feel. Breitner, in addition to being a great impressionist artist, was also an excellent photographer, as he often took photos to prepare his paintings. In fact, it is possible that his preference for cloudy weather conditions and grayish-brown color palette was a result of the limitations of photographic material.

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House of Joan of Arc

The House of Joan of Arc is a historic site located in Orléans, France. This 15th-century half-timbered house is known for being where Joan of Arc stayed during the Siege of Orléans in 1429. It has become a museum dedicated to the life and legacy of Joan of Arc. The house itself is a magnificent example of medieval architecture. Visitors can admire the carved wooden beams, mullioned windows and architectural details that have been preserved over the centuries. The interior of the house has been designed to recreate the atmosphere of the era of Joan of Arc, with period furniture and art objects. The museum offers an interactive exhibition that tells the story of Joan of Arc, from her childhood in Domrémy to her victory in Orléans. Visitors can learn about key events in his life through artifacts, paintings and historical documents. Videos and audio presentations are also available to deepen the understanding of its role in French history. In addition to the main exhibition, the House of Joan of Arc regularly organizes special events, such as lectures, shows and historical re-enactments. These events offer visitors an immersive experience in the era of Joan of Arc and provide a better understanding of her impact on French society. For history buffs and Joan of Arc enthusiasts, the House of Joan of Arc is a must-see during a visit to Orléans. It is a place full of emotion and historical significance, where you can learn more about this emblematic figure of French history.

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Moses' fiery test

The Trial of Moses by Fire is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Giorgione (1500-1501). The work is dimensionally and thematically similar to his hanging painting The Judgment of Solomon, also in the Uffizi, and dates from the years immediately following Giorgione's move to Venice. The episode was taken from the Talmud, and was probably commissioned by an acculturated person who did not entirely follow official Roman Catholic positions. The horizontal configuration is similar to that of Giovanni Bellini's Holy Allegory, also in the Uffizi, and allows the painter to give importance to the landscape. In the attention to detail of the latter, there are evident influences from northern European painting. Born in Giorgione, Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco was an Italian painter of the Venetian school during the High Renaissance of Venice, who died at the age of thirty. Giorgione is known for the elusive poetic quality of his work, although only about six surviving paintings are firmly attributed to him. The uncertainty surrounding the identity and meaning of his work has made Giorgione one of the most mysterious figures in European art. Together with Titian, who was probably slightly younger, he founded the distinctive Venetian school of Italian Renaissance painting, which achieves much of its effect through color and mood, and is traditionally contrasted with Florentine painting, which It is based on a more linear style designed by design. .

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The mature age

Camille Claudel. 1902. After the breakup between Camille Claudel and Rodin, the latter tried to help him through someone else and obtained a state commission from the director of Fine Arts. The Middle Age was commissioned in 1895, exhibited in 1899, but the bronze was never commissioned and Camille Claudel never delivered it. It was Captain Tissier who ultimately commissioned the first bronze, in 1902. The group evokes Rodin's indecision, between his ex-lover, who would emerge victorious, and Camille who, to hold him back, leans forward. Beyond her personal story, Camille creates a symbolic work that involves a meditation on human relationships. She herself portrays the features of a character she calls the Implorante, thus marking the tragedy linked to her destiny. Having reached maturity, man is dizzyingly attracted by age, while he extends a useless hand towards youth. The naked figures are wrapped in drapery that accentuates the speed of the march. The great obliques converge in perspective. This is how Paul Claudel spoke of her: "My sister Camille, Imploring, humiliated on her knees, is arrogant, she is proud, and you know what is emerging from her, at this very moment, before her gaze, is her soul."

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Madame Récamier

Madame Récamier, Jacques-Louis David This is a portrait of one of the most famous women of the time: Juliette Récamier. We see her gracefully reclined with her head turned towards the observer, wearing a white dress in the purest style of antiquity. If you look closely at the room it is empty, except for the sofa, stool and the candelabra of a Pompey style. She is observed from a distance, which makes her face quite small. More than a portrait of a person, the painting represents an ideal of feminine elegance. Madame Récamier at the time of the painting was only 23 years old and was already the most famous woman of her time. She was the daughter of a notary and symbolized the social ascension of the new post-revolutionary elite. Her husband had become one of the main bankers of Napoleon. In his mansion, many people of the time were going to have fun, especially writers like Chateaubriand who succumbed to the charms of Madame. This work was extremely avant-garde for the 1800s. More than a portrait, it is an ode to the femininity and elegance of that woman of the time. The painting was never finished and the reason is not known, but it allows us to observe David's painting technique, particularly in the colors used for the backgrounds, before being filled with other images.

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Officer of the Chasseurs

Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge, Géricault Géricault painted this painting when he was only 20 years old. They say that the painter was inspired by a horse that he observed in Saint-Germain, and also by other artists such as Rubens, Vernet, and Gros. The rider is inspired by one of his friends, the cavalry lieutenant Alexandre Dieudonné. In the picture, there are two main characters that we have to analyze: the horse and the rider. The horse is a gray horse jumping in front of an obstacle, with his eyes open for fear and at the same time his nose dilated by emotion. If you look closely, the sky is divided into two parts, twilight and fire, along the same diagonal marked by the ascending shape of the horse. The rider stands firm in his saddle, without blinking. It seems that the officer is giving an order for the movement of the sword. We see him watching his troops and he is probably talking to them, however, it is not clear where his gaze is going.

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King of Ife

This head probably represents an Ooni, a ruler of the Ife kingdom in West Africa, between 1100 and 1500 AD Similar to a portrait, the realism with which the Ife heads were crafted is unique in African art. They so amazed European art historians that they were even thought to have been made by Greek settlers in Africa. Eighteen heads in total have been found, and their stylistic similarities suggest that they were created by an individual artist or in a single workshop. They are believed to have been used to perform important and sophisticated religious ceremonies, probably centered around a sacred ruler. The kingdom of Ife first emerged around 800 AD. It was one of several West African kingdoms that developed during the medieval period. Ife's power and wealth came largely from access to the lucrative trade routes of the Niger River, connecting to the wider trade networks of West Africa and the Sahara. In this context, Ife grew to become a flourishing cosmopolitan city-state, establishing significant political and religious authority in the lower Niger region of present-day Nigeria. Today, Ife is considered the spiritual heart of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria, and is celebrated as the birthplace of humanity, where the gods descended from heaven to populate the world.

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Half-timbering rue Ste Catherine

Colombage rue Ste Catherine is a charming street located in the city of Orléans, France. This picturesque street is famous for its half-timbered architecture, which dates back to the Middle Ages. The half-timbered houses are built with exposed wooden beams, creating a warm and authentic atmosphere. Colorful facades and shuttered windows add a touch of charm to this historic street. As you stroll along Colombage rue Ste Catherine, you will be transported back in time. The narrow cobblestone streets invite you to stroll and explore the quaint shops that line the street. You will find a variety of craft shops, art galleries and charming little cafes where you can stop for a cup of coffee or a French pastry. The street is also known for its rich history. It takes its name from the nearby Sainte-Catherine Church. This Gothic church is an architectural gem and well worth a visit. You can admire its impressive facade and explore its beautifully decorated interior. If you visit Colombage rue Ste Catherine during the summer months, you can enjoy various events and festivals that take place on the street. Outdoor concerts, art exhibitions and craft markets are organized to entertain visitors. This is a great opportunity to experience the local culture and meet friendly locals. To make the most of your visit to Colombage rue Ste Catherine, here are some useful tips: - Take your time to stroll down the street and admire the half-timbered architecture. Each house has its own unique charm. - Stop at one of the small cafes to enjoy a traditional French coffee or a delicious pastry. - Don't miss visiting the Sainte-Catherine church and admiring its Gothic architecture. - Find out about events and festivals taking place on the street during your visit. This is a great opportunity to experience the local culture. - Don’t hesitate to chat with the locals. They are often happy to share stories and recommendations about the area. Enjoy your visit to Colombage rue Ste Catherine and soak up the medieval atmosphere of this charming street!

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Winged Victory of Samothrace

190 BC. This impressive statue of the goddess of Victory, called Nike, commemorates a naval battle won by the Rhodes inhabitants over Syria and is another example of Hellenistic art. Victory was a popular goddess in that era. The scale and composition of the sculpture have impressed visitors of the Louvre for more than a century. It was discovered in hundreds of pieces in 1863, in Samothrace, a little-known island in the north of the Aegean. You could think that once, she would have been located on the top of a hill overlooking the sea. However, the reality is that it was situated in the prow of a boat, although it is said that parts of the goddess statue and the prow of its ship arrived in France at different times, since initially, they were not recognized as belonging to each other. Like the Venus de Milo, Nike would also have been decorated and painted. Her head and arms are sadly missing. Nike has been at the top of this staircase since 1883. However, nowadays the name of the goddess is perhaps more known due to the clothing brand rather than for this statue: if you look closely at the logo of the popular brand “Nike”, you will see that it is inspired by the shape of the goddess wings.

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Pyramid Fountain

This fountain, located at the top of the Allee d'Eau, is supposed to represent the culmination of the Apollonian mission. In fact, after killing the snake Python, Apollo rises to the cheers of the children and other groups of the Alley of Water, to reach the Pyramid, a symbol of knowledge, which represents the temple of Delphi. This quest originally ended in the cave of Tethys where the god rested and surrendered to the nymphs. Dug in 1668, the fountain took on a circular shape in 1683. The pyramid made of lead is made up of four floors, all supported by powerful lion's paws. At the lower level, the adult newts appear to run afterward. Then the second bowl is held by newts, children and dolphins, and the last trays are carried by crabs. Finally, at the top there is a vase with satyr heads where the water jet is.

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Ceiling

The church has a Latin cross plan, composed of three naves at the same height, joined by a magnificent multi-nerved vault that rests on six piers with a circular base, and another two with indentation, hidden by the body of the choir. The high choir is the elevated tribune above the entrance to the church. The six pillars are all decorated with Renaissance themes. The vaults of the Jerónimos church are perhaps the greatest architectural wealth of this building. The roof of the ships is structured in a complex network of ribs previously unheard of in Portugal. The ribs start from each column according to the bundles of palms that extend and multiply across the vault. We are faced with a single dome that appears hand-woven and placed by a powerful crane on the pillars and walls. The transept deck, which is the rectangular space between the nave, the main chapel and the side chapels, is even more striking and bold. The transept dome measures about 29 meters long by 20 meters wide, the total length, including the two side chapels, about 50 meters. The height of the cruise is about 25 meters. Behold this vault, beautifully suspended in the air, unsupported by the central column. It consists of an extensive network of ribs, arranged geometrically, with 15 fasteners to join the ribs, decorated with large gilt bronze medallions with motifs that characterize the Manueline style: the Cross of the Order of Christ (cross with four symmetrical stems and triangular points , derived from the Cross of the Order of the Templars), Armilla Sphere (the globe-shaped navigation instrument, which was the motto of King D. Manuel), the bouquet of 3 boninas (flowers) María, the initial M of both, Shields and escutcheons with the royal arms and other symbols of the order of Saint Jerome.

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sirico's house

The great house is the result of the merger of two houses in the 1st century BC. C., one with its entrance on via Stabiana and the other from the Lupanare alley. The decorations of the entire property were radically renovated at the time of the eruption, in accordance with the principles of the time. The exedra was one of the already completed parts, where guests were delighted with sofas around a fine floor made of marble slabs and surrounded by beautiful frescoes with mythological themes inspired by the Trojan War, one of which is exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples. . The last owner of the house, Publio Védio Sirico, was identified thanks to the discovery of a bronze seal with his name. Sirico belonged to the political and commercial class of Pompeii and met daily with his followers at his home, welcoming them with the auspicious inscription SALVE LUCRU, Welcome, money! That could be read on the entrance floor.

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Madonna of the Green Cushion

Madonna of the green cushion, Solario This work is curious because we see the Virgin in a mother scene, breastfeeding her son as a baby, and not necessarily as a God. His name comes clearly from the green cushion placing in the foreground. This may seem only a detail, but it is perfectly integrated into the group with the Virgin and her son. When seeing the image, it transmits us the comfort of the Virgin, creating a scene of tenderness and familial well-being. It is unknown when he painted it, it is even thought that he may even be a nephew of the latter.

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The Assyrian Palace (King Sargon II)

The Assyrian palace, official residence of the sovereign, is the incarnation of the imperial power, by its architectural gigantism and the display of a splendor nourished of the riches of the world. The majesty of the decor of great reliefs exalted the power of an empire which at its peak extends its hegemony from Iran to Egypt. Become king of Assyria, Sargon II decides the construction of a new capital which will testify to the size of its reign. The entire city is devoted to the exaltation of the sovereign, even in the length of the outer wall whose 16 283 cubits correspond to the numerical value of its name. It is from an external facade of this private sector that this relief comes. Sargon appears there, recognizable by his tall stature and the tronconic royal tiara adorned with ribbons with which he is wearing. In front of him stands a high dignitary whose ribbon diadem seems to indicate that he is Crown Prince Sennacherib. Traces of pigments suggest that the reliefs should be painted, at least partially. Their combination with friezes of murals contributed to an ostentatious display destined to magnify the role of a sovereign who posed as elected gods and master of the cosmos.

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The Venus de Milo

The Venus de Milo, also known as Aphrodite of Milos, is a famous ancient Greek sculpture that is on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris. This white marble statue was created around 100 BC. BC and is considered one of the masterpieces of classical Greek art. The Venus de Milo is approximately 2.02 meters tall and represents a goddess of beauty and love. The statue is shown standing, leaning slightly forward, with its weight mainly on the right leg. Her arms are missing, but it is widely believed that she held an object in her right hand, possibly an apple, a symbol of the goddess Aphrodite. The sculpture is notable for its beauty and realism. Anatomical details, such as muscles and folds of clothing, are finely sculpted, giving the statue an almost life-like appearance. The Venus de Milo is also known for her calm and serene expression, which exudes an aura of grace and femininity. The discovery of the Venus de Milo took place in 1820 on the island of Milos, Greece. She was found by a peasant who was digging in a field. The statue was later acquired by the French government and became a centerpiece of the Louvre Museum's collection. The Venus de Milo is one of the Louvre's most popular attractions and attracts millions of visitors every year. It is exhibited in a special room of the museum, surrounded by explanatory panels that tell its story and its importance in the history of art. Visitors can admire the statue up close and appreciate its timeless beauty. If you visit the Louvre Museum, don't miss the opportunity to see the Venus de Milo. It is an extraordinary work of art that testifies to the talent and mastery of the sculptors of ancient Greece.

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La Meridiana or La Siesta

Influenced by the so-called peasant genre, which Van Gogh called the most important contribution to modern art. Van Gogh was inspired by Millet, especially by the treatment of the afflicted and low-income people placed in an environment more attached to what they truly were. Van Gogh made his own version of Millet's painting, a canvas that had its own style and may even be better known than Millet's original painting. This painting was made just after cutting off his ear while resting in Saint-Rémy in a moment of extreme lucidity. Since it was winter, Van Gogh began to copy paintings that he liked. Millet of course was the first choice due to the great admiration he felt for him and his way of portraying peasants, a subject that Vincent found much more beautiful than any mythological representation that was made in painting at that time. Van Gogh made this painting his own by showing us that intensity that characterizes him and it is in this painting where we see the new concern that Vincent had for color on a symbolic and metaphysical level. That is why we can see an exaggeration of colors, especially yellow, which gives us an idea of Van Gogh's mental state at that time, who was in a calmer moment of his life, despite being confined in a sanatorium.

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Mirror Fountain

This is the Mirror Fountain. The question would be, where is the mirror? Today it is not represented by water, but by the fountain. To the rhythm of the music, by a robotic mechanism, the fountain follows the rhythm of the music. Today it seems easy, but you have to imagine how difficult it was to operate a simple fountain in the 17th century. Even today, today's plumbers do not understand that they developed the entire complex mechanism of fountains in that century. The water, imported from areas surrounding Versailles, was stored in large ponds in underground tunnels and on the roof of the palace. With the force of gravity, the water quickly descended through pipes whose diameter became smaller as they approached the source so that the pressure was greater and the water jet reached a greater height. Then, if you look closely, the entire route they have taken is on a negative slope. The water fell, concentrating under the Fountain of Apollo and then being taken up thanks to the operation of mills pushed by men and animals. The Francines were a family, or dynasty, of plumbers directly imported from Florence who perfected the art of fountains for generations and generations in Versailles. In total at the time there were more than 55 fountains, 620 water jets and 35 km of underground galleries.

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confessionals

These doors are the old confessionals. Inside, there is an iron fence that separates the confessor from the penitent. On the other side of this wall is the church, where there are doors like these. In confession, the confessor entered through the cloister and the penitent through the church. The duty of confession to sailors and pilgrims was thus ensured by the monks of the Order of Saint Jerome. On the face of the buttresses in front of the confessionals there are four medallions with busts, some of which are four Portuguese navigators: Pedro Álvares Cabral, with his face turned to the right, followed by Nicolau Coelho, Paulo da Gama, and Vasco da Gama , all three with their faces turned to the left.

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Lake of the Swiss

Exceptional walking area: This 13-hectare pool was excavated between 1679 and 1682 by the Swiss Guard regiment from which it takes its name. Legend has it that Louis XIV wanted an element to the south of his gardens to beautify the view of the palace, as an extension of the Orangerie. Talk to your head gardener, Le Nôtre, to have him build you a water feature. However, Le Nôtre was opposed since he had thousands of men digging to extract water and desilt the Grand Canal. Louis Hundreds of Swiss die in such work, so the name of the lake will be placed in their honor. Today, surrounded by wide meadows and wide paths with magnificent trees, the place is ideal for relaxing.

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Outdoor figure test (counterclockwise) / (clockwise)

Claude Monet. 1886. When he decides to paint a model, Monet is unable to dissociate it from the landscape that surrounds it. This ethereal portrait is a testament to love, both for nature and for Suzanne, his favorite stepdaughter. In Giverny, returning from a walk, Monet sees his stepdaughter, Suzanne Hoschedé, sitting on top of a bench on Île aux Orties. "But it's like Camille in Argenteuil!" I would have exclaimed. Suzanne Hoschedé, who was eighteen years old at the time, will be the last model for Monet, who, for many years, dedicated himself mainly to landscapes. "How could you give up this kind of clear and easy compositions with characters?" asked the Duke of Treviso, looking at this painting. According to Gimpel, this choice was imposed by Monet's wife Alice, who could not bear the thought of seeing her husband working with young girls. Even so, Monet adored Suzanne, to whom he dedicated other paintings. There is also a sketch of sorts for this painting, titled "Promenade" where Suzanne was painted among other family members. Monet produced two symmetrical paintings on this theme, Suzanne turning in one, to the right, in the other, to the left. In both cases, the representation of the model appears as a fleeting vision. Here, the contours of the girl's face are only suggested. The umbrella produces diffraction effects in the light, making the body even more unreal. "Femme à l'ombrelle" turned to the right, as well as its counterpart, were presented at the same time as the famous series "Les Meules". It was no coincidence, as Monet so aptly explained: "'I could have made fifteen portraits of this young woman painted in different atmospheres, for me it is only the surroundings that give real value to the subject."

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Moulin de la Galette

The Moulin de la Galette, nestled in the heart of the Montmartre district in Paris, is an emblematic place that combines history, art and conviviality. A former windmill transformed into a cabaret, it embodies the bohemian soul and joie de vivre that characterize Montmartre. This mill, built in the 19th century, has been immortalized by renowned painters such as Renoir and Van Gogh. By contemplating it, one can imagine the animation of the evenings in the past, when dancers and artists mingled with the inhabitants of Montmartre to celebrate life. Today, the Moulin de la Galette is a place where you can enjoy a unique atmosphere. Its outdoor space, with its shaded terraces and its breathtaking view of the surroundings, offers an ideal setting to enjoy a drink or share a meal with friends. You can relax there while breathing in the bohemian air that floats in the streets of Montmartre. The Moulin de la Galette is also famous for its gastronomy. The menu features a selection of traditional French dishes, showcasing the authentic flavors of local cuisine. Regional specialties, aged cheeses and delicious wines will delight the most demanding palates. In addition to its function as a restaurant, the Moulin de la Galette continues to promote art and culture. Contemporary art exhibitions, musical performances and themed evenings are regularly organized to offer visitors an enriching cultural experience. The Moulin de la Galette is a true symbol of Montmartre, where you can immerse yourself in the history of the district and soak up its bohemian spirit. Whether for a convivial meal, a lively evening or simply to enjoy the unique atmosphere of Montmartre, the Moulin de la Galette is a must for all those who wish to experience the artistic and festive essence of this legendary district.

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Holy Cross Cathedral

The Ste Croix Cathedral is an architectural gem located in the heart of the city of Orléans. Built in the 13th century, it is a magnificent example of French Gothic architecture. The cathedral is dedicated to the Holy Cross and is an important place of worship for Catholics in the region. With its imposing facade and its slender spiers, it proudly dominates the urban landscape of Orléans. The interior of the cathedral is just as impressive as its exterior. Visitors will be amazed by the magnificent stained glass windows that flood the space with colorful light. These stained glass windows, dating from the 19th century, tell biblical stories and local saints. The delicate details and vibrant colors of the stained glass create a spiritual and peaceful atmosphere. The cathedral is also home to stunning sculptures and religious artwork. The side chapels are decorated with statues and paintings which bear witness to the rich religious history of the region. Visitors will be able to admire marble altars, frescoes and intricately carved wooden sculptures. In addition to its religious and artistic importance, the Sainte Croix Cathedral is also a place of pilgrimage for history lovers. She is closely linked to Joan of Arc, the famous French heroine. It was in this cathedral that Joan of Arc attended masses and prayed before leaving for the Battle of Orléans. Visitors can learn about the fascinating story of Joan of Arc through exhibits and information available inside the cathedral. To fully enjoy a visit to the Holy Cross Cathedral, it is recommended to take the time to sit and contemplate the beauty of this religious building. Visitors can also attend masses and concerts which take place regularly in the cathedral. It is a unique experience to listen to sacred music in such a majestic setting. The Ste Croix Cathedral is a must-see during your visit to Orléans. Whether you are a lover of architecture, religious art or history, you will be dazzled by the beauty and significance of this exceptional cathedral.

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Wings of the Ministers

When Louis of these pavilions in 1679. The sober and dependent ornament of the castle marks the end of the era of all-powerful ministers, such as Fouquet, who challenged the king with the construction of his castle Vaux le Vicomte. The four secretaries of state each occupied half of a wing, with all floors. The ground floor was dedicated to work and reception areas, the first floor housed their apartments, their families were located on the second floor, and the attic was intended for employees. The most famous and important minister of his reign was Jean-Baptiste Colbert. General controller of finances from 1665 to 1683, he is one of those responsible for the great French economic boom of the time thanks to an interventionist and mercantilist economic policy (later designated Colbertism). It favors the development of commerce and industry through royal and state monopolies.

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A Windmill on a Polder Waterway

Our country is colorful, juicy, thick. (...) I repeat, our country is not boring, not even in bad weather, the dunes are not boring either," Constant Gabriël wrote in a letter. Unlike many artists of the Hague School, he preferred to paint beautiful summer days Also known as 'In the Month of July', this work from 1889 depicts a windmill on a polder canal in summer. Polder is the Dutch term to distinguish swampy land reclaimed from the sea and which, once drained, is dedicated to cultivation. The mill is reflected in the water. On the right, a man walks towards the mill, on the left there is a house. Gabriël used a palette of light colors, moving away from the gray tones so characteristic of the other impressionist artists belonging to the Hague School. The more I observed the landscape of Holland, the more colors I perceived in it.

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Plaza San Florence

In the square is the church of San Filippo Neri integrated into the San Firenze Palace, from which it takes its name and it is a monumental baroque building. In addition, the square also houses the Gondi Palace, an example of Florentine residential architecture that was expanded in the 19th century, which is located in front of the church mentioned above. The square is almond-shaped and on the east side is dominated by the façade of the San Firenze complex, a complex that was until 2012 the headquarters of the court and judicial offices. Since 2013, the square has been pedestrianized by the Renzi administration. On the southwest side is the rear corner of the Palazzo Vecchio, which is also present in the square, although to a lesser extent. Formerly there were two churches in the square, the already mentioned church of San Fiorenzo and the church of Sant Apollinare, founded by the Byzantines and destroyed in the 17th century. This was located under the current chapel of San Filippo Neri, the other, on the opposite side, was demolished to make room for traffic in the square. Today the Consulate of Peru is located in this square and it is a place of constant transit through the place where it is located. Beneath the old court building are said to be the remains of the ancient temple of Isis, dating back to the 2nd century. Today, from the San Firenze Palace you can only visit the church, which has a nave and its main feature is the coffered ceiling, highlighting the Glory of San Felipe Neri in the center. Inside, there are also marbles, statues, fabrics and frescoes from past centuries that are worth admiring.

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Sphinx of Tanis

2500 BC. This is the greatest craftmanship example of sphinx carved in a single block of granite. It gives the Pharaoh the body of a lion, which is the earthly incarnation of the sun god! The King, whose face we see, secures eternal life, but above all: The Great Sphinx of Tanis is the immortal guardian of sacred places. Its location in the Louvre is impressive, as it welcomes visitors to the Egyptian department of the museum and its sacred objects. Many centuries ago, this sculpture would have been guarding the entrance to a sanctuary. The Pharaoh's identity is unknown. There are many Kings names inscribed in the sculpture, which has led to believe that the original name may have disappeared, suggesting that the Sphinx is very old. The mystery surrounding this great sculpture is accentuated by how it was found: look at the walls surrounding it, where you can see the reliefs that show Ramses II (1279-1213 BC) praying at the “Great Sphinx” of Giza. Apparently, Napoleon found these reliefs between the legs of The Great Sphinx of Tanis, which reveals how important the sphinxes were to the Egyptians.

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David with the head of Goliath

An androgynous-looking David, bare-chested as in many semi-nude paintings of women, leans against a column as he contemplates Goliath's severed head. Why is he looking so calmly at his hideous handiwork? This is why. David, as so often in poetic painting, is an alter ego of the artist who has just executed his painting. Be on the lookout for puns in art; They are very common. In fact, here's another one. The head (without the body) symbolizes not only David's painting but his masterpiece because, in Italian, masterpiece is capolavoro or literally head work. David as a painter is contemplating his work of art. Does that make more sense of the scene? The sword, of course, is David's "brush," facing the image just as Reni's actual brush would have done. We know it symbolizes his "brush" because its handle means GR for Guido Reni. In the diagram below, yellow indicates G on the left side, red for R on the right. (It is not entirely clear whether the top of the G is hidden behind the blade or extends into the space to the right as indicated in the diagram.) Of course, there's more to discuss here, including the juxtaposition of the circular column and the rectangular cube, but at least this brief description of the true scene provides a firmer foundation to dream about.

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Virgin and child enthroned, surrounded by angels.

This work, the largest 13th-century painting on wood known to date, was commissioned from the Sienese painter Duccio di Buoninsegna in 1285 by the Florentine confraternity Compagnia dei Laudesi, a community that met in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. to sing Praises of the Virgin. Mary sits on a richly carved wooden throne, her shoulders covered by a banner, symbolizing her honor and status. On her knees sits the Baby Jesus, dressed in traditional ancient robes, with a rich red cloth, woven with gold, around his hips. He is giving a blessing with his right hand. The throne is supported by six kneeling angels who appear to be suspended in the void, giving the impression that this is a sudden appearance of the sacred image before the worshipers. The shortened representation of the throne and the slightly lateral position of the Virgin are elements frequently used by 13th century painters to add a certain spatial depth to the compositions. The frame of the painting is decorated with roundels containing small figures of saints. At the bottom it is possible to recognize, thanks to the black and white dress of the Dominican friars, the founder of the Dominican order and Saint Peter the Martyr, as well as the Dominican saints who officiated over the church of Santa Maria Novella. This is one of the oldest and best-known works by Duccio di Buoninsegna who, in the early 1280s, probably worked alongside the Florentine painter Cimabue. Along with formal elements taken from Byzantine traditions, such as the gold letters on the cloak of the Baby Jesus and the signs used to construct the anatomies of the faces, Duccio also reveals his sensitivity to the naturalism and elegance of Gothic art, as can be seen. see in the distribution of light and shadows, in the draped fabrics and in the wavy and undulating movements of the edges. The name "Rucellai Madonna", by which the painting is known, comes from the chapel in which it was hung at the end of the 16th century, owned by the Rucellai family.

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Marlet Street

Marlet Street is one of the many narrow streets and the mysterious magical aspect of the Gothic quarter of Barcelona. There is a presumption that the Old Synagogue of Barcelona was located there, in the building with the inclined façade, which remains that way without completely surrendering. Marlet Street is one of the most popular streets because of the tombstone on the facade at the front of the house at number 1. The Hebrew inscription is in memory of Samuel ben Itshaq ha-Sardi, one of the most important rabbis of Barcelona (12th and 13th century). He is remembered for his charity work for the Pia Almoina Jewish Foundation. The Hebrew text on the tombstone reads as follows: 1. Pia Alms 2. Rabbi Xemuel 3. Ha-Sardi 4. "Generous people prosper" Among experts in history there are doubts about whether the Main Synagogue was located there or not , but Without a doubt, in the area there was a place of worship for the Jewish people. Proof of this are the foundations of the Roman-era synagogue that date back to Emperor Caracalla, who ruled from 188 to 217 and granted full Roman citizenship to all free men of the empire, including its Jews, in 212. . The Jewish quarter was very prosperous in the thirteenth century, up to five temples of worship were built, of which only this one remains standing. This building belongs to the "Associació del Call de Barcelona", has a synagogue for special celebrations and is an important information point about Judaism in Barcelona. The interior part of the building is open to the public to visit the archaeological remains discovered during an excavation in 2002. The Jews were expelled from Spain and this street, previously called Call, passed into the hands of the Crown.

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Place Dauphine

Place Dauphine is a charming square located on the Ile de la Cité, in the heart of Paris. It is surrounded by historic buildings and offers a peaceful and picturesque atmosphere. The square was built in the 17th century during the reign of Henri IV and was named in honor of his son, the future King Louis XIII. Place Dauphine is triangular in shape and is accessible via three streets. It is lined with classic French style houses, with stone facades and slate roofs. The buildings are aligned symmetrically, creating visual harmony. The windows are decorated with wrought iron balconies and colorful shutters, adding a touch of charm to the whole. In the center of the square is a garden with benches, trees and flower beds. It is an ideal place to relax and enjoy the tranquility of the Ile de la Cité. Visitors can sit on the benches and admire the surrounding architecture, or simply stroll through the shaded walkways. Place Dauphine is also surrounded by cafes, restaurants and shops. The café terraces offer stunning views of the square and are a great place to enjoy a coffee or glass of wine while people-watching. The restaurants offer traditional French cuisine, with delicious dishes such as snail, foie gras and crepes. The square is also close to many popular tourist sites, such as Notre-Dame Cathedral, the Palais de Justice and the Pont Neuf. Visitors can easily walk to these attractions from Place Dauphine, making it an ideal starting point for exploring the Ile de la Cité and its surroundings. In summary, Place Dauphine is a hidden gem in the heart of Paris. With its classic architecture, peaceful garden and bustling cafes, it's a great place to relax and soak up the city's unique atmosphere. Whether you are a tourist or a resident of Paris, be sure to visit this charming square during your stay in the French capital.

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Big theatre

The Great Theatre, from the character of its construction, dates in its original form to the end of the 3rd century BC. During the August period, the theater was greatly restored and expanded under the auspices of the brothers Marcus Holconius Rufus and Marcus Holconius Celer, as evidenced by the numerous inscriptions found throughout the building. The architect employed by Holconii was a freedman, Marcus Artorius Primus, immortalized in an inscription on the outer wall, near the entrance to the orchestra. The theater is divided into three main divisions: the cavea, the large outdoor area containing seating for spectators; the orchestra, the small semicircular part enclosed by the cavea with an entrance on each side and the stage, in front of the orchestra and the cavea. The stage, at approximately 1 m above the level of the orchestra, is lower than the stage of a Roman theater and much lower than the height specified for the Greek type (approximately 3.2 m). The probable reason for the modest height of the stage is that the orchestra was occupied by the seats of the magistrates, whose view would be obstructed if the stage were much higher. The cavea seated about 5,000 spectators. Most of it, from the orchestra to the vaulted corridor under the summa cavea, lies on the side of a hill; The floor of the vaulted corridor is at the same level as the Triangular Forum. The seats are arranged in three main semicircular sections. The lowest, the ima cavea, is located next to the orchestra and contains four wide shelves on which, as in the orchestra itself, the members of the municipal council, the decuriones, can place their chairs. The stage is long and narrow, measuring approximately 120 by 14 Oscan feet; The stage floor, as mentioned above, is approximately 1 m above the orchestra level. The back wall, as in ancient theaters in general, was built to represent the front of a palace, entered through three doors and adorned with columns and niches for statues.

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Rue Jeanne d’Arc

Rue Jeanne d'Arc is an iconic street located in the charming city of Orléans, France. This picturesque street is steeped in history and offers tourists a unique experience. Lined with magnificent old buildings, quaint boutiques and welcoming cafés, Rue Jeanne d'Arc is a must-see place to visit during your stay in Orléans. As you walk along this street, you will immediately be transported back in time. The building facades reflect the traditional architecture of the region, with their exposed wooden beams and colorful shuttered windows. The cobbled streets add an extra touch of charm to the whole, creating a warm and authentic atmosphere. Rue Jeanne d'Arc is also closely linked to the history of the city. Joan of Arc, the famous French heroine, played a crucial role in the liberation of Orléans during the Hundred Years' War. The street was named in her honor and is home to an impressive statue of Joan of Arc on horseback, remembering her courage and determination. In addition to its historic aspect, Rue Jeanne d'Arc is full of charming boutiques and cafes. You can stroll through the shops and discover local crafts, stylish clothing and unique souvenirs. Cafes and restaurants invite you to relax and taste French specialties, while enjoying the lively atmosphere of the street. If you visit Rue Jeanne d'Arc during the summer months, you will also be able to enjoy the events and festivals held there. Outdoor concerts, craft markets and street performances are frequently held, providing visitors with an immersive cultural experience. To fully enjoy your visit to Rue Jeanne d'Arc, we recommend that you take your time and explore every corner of this picturesque street. Feel free to stop at the shops and cafes, admire the architecture and soak up the unique atmosphere of this special place. Tip: Don't miss out on tasting the delicious French pastries in one of the bakeries on Rue Jeanne d'Arc. The fresh croissants and chocolate éclairs are particularly delicious!

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Neptune Fountain

The Fountain of Neptune was built between 1679 and 1682 and its construction was supervised by Le Nôtre. At that time it was called the lake below the dragon fountain or pine lake. The original design consisted of marine decoration on the theme of Neptune, but the grand plans were never built during the reign of Louis XIV. During the following reign, under Louis XV, the shape of the pool was slightly modified and given its definitive sculpted features. The new fountain was officially inaugurated and was greatly admired for the number, size and variety of water jets that fall around the lead sculptures. It currently has 99 jets, which constitutes an extraordinary hydraulic system.

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Captives

Martin VAN DEN BOGAERT, known as DESJARDINS From the pedestal of the statue of the Place des Victoires, these captives represent nations defeated by Louis XIV at the peace of Nijmegen (1679). Each expresses a different feeling in the test of captivity: revolt, hope, resignation or despondency Captives, bronze figures larger than life, symbolize the four nations defeated in the Nijmegen treaties. Each represents an age of man and a distinct feeling of captivity. Spain is a beardless young man with long, fiery hair. The body naked and straightened, the face and the eyes raised towards the sky indicate the hope. The Empire is a bearded old man, dressed in an ancient tunic. His head bowed, his body bends under resigned despondency. Holland is a man still young, with masculine features and a short beard. The naked body ready to pounce, the shoulder brought forward in a defiant attitude and the fierce face, he rebels. Brandenburg is a mature man, dressed like an ancient barbarian (like the Farnese Prisoners, antique marbles much appreciated by artists). The hand clasping the mantle, the sagging right shoulder, the contracted face express the pain. The general orientation of the Captives to the right makes it possible to turn around the pedestal in the direction of clockwise. Desjardins marvelously knew how to diversify the figures, alternating characters young and old, naked and dressed, straightened or bent, and varying the postures of the legs and arms.

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Royal Street

Rue Royale is one of the main thoroughfares in Orléans, a charming town located in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. This iconic street is renowned for its bustling atmosphere, historic architecture and numerous shops and restaurants. It offers tourists a unique and authentic experience of local life. As you stroll along Rue Royale, you will immediately be seduced by its picturesque charm. The buildings with traditional architecture, with their stone facades and flowered balconies, create a warm and welcoming atmosphere. You can admire magnificent examples of 18th century French architecture. Rue Royale is also famous for its many boutiques. From fashion brands to local craft shops, you will find a wide variety of shops here to suit all tastes. Whether you are looking for stylish clothes, unique souvenirs or local products, you will be satisfied with the options offered along this shopping street. Gourmets will not be left out either. Rue Royale is full of restaurants and cafes where you can taste the delicious French cuisine. From bakeries offering fresh pastries to restaurants serving traditional dishes, you can feast on local specialties. Do not miss the opportunity to taste the wines of the region, which will perfectly accompany your meal. To make the most of your visit to Rue Royale, here is a little advice: take the time to stroll and explore the adjacent streets. You will thus discover charming little squares, historic churches and other hidden treasures. Do not hesitate to get lost in the narrow streets and let yourself be surprised by the beauty of the city. The author of this description is ChatGPT 3.5, an advanced language model developed by OpenAI. It was trained on a vast amount of data to generate accurate and informative answers. Enjoy your visit to Rue Royale and soak up the unique atmosphere of this emblematic street of Orléans!

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Monument of Peace

The Ara Pacis Augustae is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC. C. to honor the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul, and consecrated on January 30, 9 BC. Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, one Roman mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via Flaminia, it was at the northeast corner of the Campus Martius, the ancient floodplain of the Tiber River, and gradually became buried less than 4 meters (13 feet) of silt deposits. It was reassembled at its current location, now the Ara Pacis Museum, in 1938. The altar reflects the august vision of Roman civil religion. The lower register of its frieze represents plant work intended to communicate the abundance and prosperity of the Roman peace, while the monument as a whole fulfills a civic civic function while simultaneously operating as propaganda for Augustus and his regime, alleviating notions of autocracy and dynastic succession. which could otherwise be unpleasant to traditional Roman culture. The monument consists of a traditional open-air altar at its center, surrounded by enclosure walls that are pierced at the east and west ends (so called today because of the modern layout) by openings and elaborately and finely sculpted entirely in Luna marble. .

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Velázquez Palace

Palacio de Velázquez, or Palacio de Velázquez (sometimes called the Palace of Exhibitions) is an exhibition hall located in the Parque del Buen Retiro, Madrid, Spain. Originally known as the Palacio de la Minería, it was built in 1881-3 for the National Mining Exhibition by architect Ricardo Velázquez Bosco (and named after him), engineer Alberto Palacio, and ceramist Daniel Zuloaga. It functions as an art and craft gallery and is listed as an Asset of Cultural Interest. The interior of the building can be seen on Google Street View and is part of the Google Art Project.

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Metropolis Building

The Metrópolis Building was built between 1907 and 1911 on the site where the famous Coffin House had been, named for its narrow shape. At that time, the construction of the Gran Vía began and the new building became the tallest in the city at 45 meters./nIts first owner was the insurance company La Unión y el Fénix Español, which placed its figure of the Phoenix Bird, symbol of the company. In 1972 the Metrópolis insurance company acquired the property./nSince then it has been the Metrópolis company that has occupied the building and has been in charge of maintaining it. The last renovation, which has served to clean the façade and other improvements, was completed in August 2016.

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Statue of Dante

The statue of Dante is a monument in honor of Dante Alighieri. Initially it was placed in the center of the square, but it ended up being moved to the front of the façade of the Basilica. The reason for the statue was to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of the poet Dante, and the pedestal was designed by Luigi del Sarto. The poet has been recognized above all for writing the Divine Comedy, one of the fundamental works of the transition from medieval to Renaissance thought, in addition to being a crowning achievement of universal literature. It was built in 1865 by the Italian sculptor Enrico Pazzi, an author who subsisted on small private projects for tomb monuments and decorations for houses. This pedestal has four Marzocco lions, a heraldic lion, symbol of the city, which has shields with the minor works of Dante and the symbols of several Italian cities that participated in the total cost of the sculpture. One of the curiosities surrounding this character is the place where his remains rest. Pope Leo remains of Dante. It is said that his remains rest in Ravenna, his city of exile where he died in 1321, which is why the tension between the two cities is latent. Local stories say that his remains were hidden in a Franciscan convent in Ravenna, until in the mid-19th century they were rediscovered and preserved in a discreet street in the city, away from the waves of tourists.

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evangelical christian church

The Evangelical Christian Church of Orléans is a dynamic and welcoming place of worship located in the heart of the city. Founded over 50 years ago, this church is a gathering place for evangelical Christians in the region. Its modern and elegant architecture makes it a remarkable building in the urban landscape of Orleans. The Evangelical Christian Church provides a warm and inclusive environment for visitors. The faithful gather here to celebrate their faith, share biblical teachings and support each other on their spiritual journey. Church services are lively and inspiring, with songs of praise, collective prayers and engaging preaching. Besides religious services, the church also offers a variety of activities and programs for members of the community. Bible study groups, youth meetings, charity events and conferences are held regularly. These activities offer visitors the opportunity to meet people who share the same values and to get involved in the life of the church. The evangelical Christian church is led by a dedicated pastor and a team of committed leaders. They are passionate about their mission to share God's love and transform lives. Their warm welcome and their openness make this place a place where everyone can feel welcome, whatever their beliefs or their life path. If you are visiting Orleans, a visit to the Evangelical Christian Church can be a rewarding experience. Whether you are a believer or simply curious to discover the evangelical Christian faith, you will be welcomed with kindness and respect. Do not hesitate to attend a religious service or participate in one of the activities offered to fully experience this vibrant community.

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Old Appointment House

The Ribera neighborhood was the arrival point for many sailors and travelers who frequented dating houses or brothels. In Barcelona these could be distinguished by the relief of the face of a man with a happy expression attached to the wall. The expression referred to the customer satisfied with the services provided at the premises. Before the recent construction of Barceloneta beach, the sea reached much closer to the neighborhood, and the number of men loading and unloading goods in the port was frequent. Nowadays, Barrio la Ribera no longer has these uses, but as in the entire city, pieces of past stories are left that coexist with the present.

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Le Passe Muraille

Marcel Aymé, Jean Marais

The Passe-Muraille, located in Montmartre, Paris, is an emblematic monument that celebrates the fantastic spirit and the overflowing imagination of the writer Marcel Aymé. This sculpture represents the eponymous character from Marcel Aymé's short story, an ordinary man endowed with the mysterious power to walk through walls. The Passe-Muraille is a work of art that has fascinated visitors and inhabitants of Montmartre since its installation in 1989. The bronze sculpture, created by artist Jean Marais, represents a man frozen halfway between two walls, symbolizing his extraordinary ability to overcome physical obstacles. Located on Place Marcel Aymé, this sculpture invites visitors to immerse themselves in the fantastic world of the author. It recalls the magical and surreal universe of Marcel Aymé's stories, which often take place in the picturesque streets of Montmartre. The Passe-Muraille has become a symbol of the district, a meeting place for residents and visitors who wish to familiarize themselves with the work of Marcel Aymé and discover his unique literary universe. We can often see passers-by stopping in front of the sculpture, captivated by the frozen expression of the character and letting themselves be carried away by the resulting imagination. The Passe-Muraille sculpture is also surrounded by a charming setting, with cafés and shops typical of Montmartre. The picturesque streets and spiral staircases invite you to further explore the neighborhood, discover its hidden corners and lose yourself in its bohemian atmosphere. Whether you are a literature lover, a fan of Marcel Aymé or simply curious to discover a unique work of art, the Passe-Muraille in Montmartre offers a captivating experience. It embodies magic and wonder, while being a living testimony to the overflowing imagination of the writer and the creative soul of Montmartre.

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Mechanical Galleon

The mechanical galleon is actually a very elaborate and automated watch. Its mechanism no longer works, but originally it would have played music and fired its cannons. Based on the design of the great European ships that sailed during the 16th century, owning a watch like this was a status symbol within the Courts of the time. The central figure on the galleon is the Holy Roman Emperor, a title held during that period by Rudolf II, a member of the Habsburg family. Today it is known that for the Habsburgs the mechanical galleons were a representation of their power, since much of their wealth came from the silver brought from the Americas. They were generally used as diplomatic gifts; In fact, the emperor gave watches to the Turkish sultan to maintain peaceful relations throughout the 16th century. Despite the accuracy of its design, it is unlikely that the maker of this watch, the German Hans Schlottheim, has ever seen a real galleon in his life. Schlottheim was also the creator of two mobile mechanical crabs, one of which still exists in Dresden.

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Booksellers

Les Bouquinistes is an iconic Paris attraction, offering tourists a unique and picturesque experience. Located along the banks of the Seine, these bouquinistes are second-hand book sellers set up in small green stalls. They have been an integral part of the Parisian landscape for centuries. As you stroll along the quays, you will immediately be drawn to the colorful stalls filled with books, magazines, postcards and old prints. Les Bouquinistes offer a vast selection of French and foreign literature, ranging from timeless classics to contemporary bestsellers. Whether you are a novel lover, a history buff or simply looking for a unique souvenir, you are sure to find something that interests you among the literary treasures on offer. In addition to books, Les Bouquinistes also sell typically Parisian souvenirs such as vintage postcards, period posters and artistic engravings. This is the ideal place to find an original gift or an authentic souvenir of your trip to Paris. In addition to the commercial aspect, the Bouquinistes are also a cultural attraction in their own right. They are part of the city's heritage and are protected by French law. Some of these booksellers have been in business for generations, passing down their passion for books from generation to generation. Les Bouquinistes is also a meeting place for literature lovers. You can sit on one of the many benches along the quays, leaf through a book and enjoy the magnificent view of the Seine and iconic Paris monuments such as Notre-Dame and the Eiffel Tower. It's a great place to relax, read and soak up the romantic atmosphere of the city. In conclusion, the Bouquinistes are much more than just a second-hand book market. They are a true Parisian institution, offering visitors a unique experience blending culture, history and romance. Whether you are a literature enthusiast or simply curious to discover an authentic aspect of Paris, a visit to Les Bouquinistes is a must during your stay in the French capital.

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forest of columns

Gaudí set out to reinterpret the Gothic style with his personal touch, inspired by nature. Furthermore, the walls had to house large windows and could not support the weight of the building. To get rid of the Gothic buttresses, he devised these tree columns, an avant-garde system that had never been used until now, which allows the weight of the roofs to be unloaded through the branches of the columns until reaching the ground, a practical as well as aesthetic solution. , since it turns the interior of the temple naves into an organic space that resembles a forest. In 1987 the foundation of the warehouses began; In 1997 the side vaults were completed and the central one was finished in 2010. In the temple there are 56 columns. In the apse 20: 10 make up the ambulatory that surrounds the altar, 10 more in the second row, separate the chapels. In the transept there are 16: those of the 12 apostles and those of the 4 evangelists. In each transept there are 2; and there are 16 more on the ship. They are made of various materials. Thus, the longest and thickest are made of red porphyry (very hard volcanic rock), the smallest and darkest are made of basalt and those that support the exterior columns are made of granite.

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Liberty Leading the People

by Eugène Delacroix. Artists gained more freedom thanks to the French revolutions. They could choose their subjects. Delacroix's allegorical painting of the 1830 Revolution, is a great example of this. “Liberty Leading the People”, represents a woman who carries the French flag above her head. She is the Liberty personified. Some people call her “Marianne”. Dressed as a Greek Goddess, she is leading the people into battle. Delacroix painted this piece of art after the Revolution of 1830 that overthrew Charles X, the last king of the Bourbons dynasty, of his throne. The Paris uprising took place over 3 days in July, known as the “Three glorious days”. Delacroix used this theme as a symbol of modernity and painted it in a deeply romantic style. The successor of Charles X, King Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, bought the painting. The approach of the artist to the subject is highly emotional and has a lasting effect on the viewer. The dramatic scene mixes fiction and reality: freedom is a fictitious appearance of patriotism; however, the corpses of the people are surprisingly real. The technique used is interesting since paint is applied with more texture, which inspired modernists such as Edouard Manet and James McNeill Whistler; moreover, the approach inspired other artist’s piece of work, such as “Les Misérables”, of Victor Hugo. The writer chooses the young man situated to the right side of Marianne to be his character (Gavroche) in his novel! We can also see the towers of Notre-Dame through the smoke of the canyon, reminding us that the uprising took place on the streets of Paris. Additionally, he paints the Parisians rising above the enemy in the latest releases of the conflict. Despite having not participated physically in the fight, the artist claimed to have defended his country with painting. At that time, the painting was rejected by critics due to its lack of classicism, and was not shown to the public until 1863, when it entered the Luxembourg Museum!

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The bear house

The Bear House is located on Via degli Augustali. The house was first excavated in 1865 and again in 1868. The property takes its name from the graphic mosaic of a bear wounded in the jaws. The maw opens on the north side of the Via degli Augustali. The maw walls retain much of their original Fourth Style decoration, which consisted of red and yellow panels separated by architectural motifs above a decorative lower red frieze. The maw has a fine mosaic floor more or less divided into two parts. The part closest to the road has a colorful mosaic of a bear wounded with a spear, while the part adjacent to the atrium is made up of a black and white geometric pattern. The fauces lead directly to the atrium which has a central impluvium. The walls of the atrium retain some remains of plaster, but they are too discolored to allow an adequate description of the fresco decoration. The atrium has a fine mosaic floor consisting of a black and white geometric pattern complemented by a wide border that frames the central impluvium. A short passage in the southwest corner of the atrium leads to a reasonably sized room facing the street. The room is illuminated by two square windows on its south wall. Three more irregularly shaped rooms open on the west side of the atrium. At the back of the house, beyond what is presumed to be a small tablinum, is a fountain richly decorated entirely with brightly colored tesserae and seashells. The fountain consists of a pediment placed over an arched niche. Water flowed from a small rectangular opening in the center of the niche to pour into a semicircular basin below.

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Saint George

Gaudí designed the exterior facades of the Sagrada Familia as large altarpieces with a catechetical and evangelizing function, however he wanted the interior of the Temple to be a space for prayer and reflection with few sculptures and altarpieces. In fact, inside there are only four sculptures that mark the four ends of the cross on the floor. Thus, walking from the Birth Gate to the Passion Gate, we can see the three figures of the Holy Family: in the Nativity Gallery, San José. Opposite, in the Passion gallery, the Virgin Mary. The one of Jesus on the cross on the altar is right in the middle of those two sculptures. Sant Jordi, the patron saint of Catalonia on the main door, inside the Gloria façade. Sant Jordi, the patron saint of Catalonia and whom Gaudí had special esteem, decided to project it in a prominent place in the temple. In 1989 Subirachs offered to carry it out because the Saint is also a reference in his work. He made a bronze sculpture of concave and convex shapes, 3 meters high and quite different from the usual representation of the Saint. Here he appears without a horse or dragon, and without a sword or weapon. Furthermore, the armor reveals a young body and a Hellenistic head, which turns downward to look at the audience. It was placed in June 2006 on the railing of the Jubé balcony, about nine meters high, above the main door, inside the Gloria façade. It was inaugurated in 2007 to coincide with the 125th anniversary of the laying of the temple's first stone and the 550th anniversary of the saint's patronage in Catalonia.

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San Angelo Bridge

Ponte Sant'Angelo, once the Aelian Bridge or Pons Aelius, meaning Hadrian's Bridge, is a Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, completed in 134 AD. C. by the Roman emperor Hadrian, to cross the Tiber, from the city center to his newly built mausoleum, now the imposing Castel Sant'Angelo. The bridge is faced with travertine marble and spans the Tiber with five arches, three of which are Roman; It was approached by means of a ramp from the river. The bridge is now pedestrian and offers a panoramic view of Castel Sant'Angelo. It links the rioni of Ponte (which was named after the bridge) and Borgo, to whom the bridge administratively belongs. Beginning with the early Middle Ages, the original name was forgotten: after the ruin of Nero's Bridge, pilgrims were forced to use this bridge to reach St. Peter's Basilica, so it was also known by the name "Saint Peter's Bridge" (pons Sancti Petri). In the 6th century, under Pope Gregory I, both the castle and the bridge took the name Sant'Angelo, explained by the legend that an angel appeared on the roof of the castle to announce the end of the plague. Dante writes in his Comedy that during the Jubilee of 1300, due to the large number of pilgrims coming and going from St. Peter's, two separate lanes were organized on the bridge. During the Jubilee of 1450, the bridge's balustrades gave way, due to large crowds of pilgrims, and many drowned in the river. In response, some houses at the head of the bridge and a Roman triumphal arch were demolished to widen the pilgrim route.

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Detail of the Barcelona Cathedral

Walking through the Gothic Quarter of Barcelona you can see its cathedral from different angles to appreciate its mostly Gothic style and the different elements such as the colorful buttresses or abutments, slender structural supports that keep the cathedral standing and favor the verticality of the temple. along with the pointed arches very typical of this architectural style. The cathedral and El Barrio are a reflection of the ancient history of a city founded as a Roman colony with the name of Barcino at the end of the 1st century, surrounded by a wall of which the remains are still preserved. After being under Muslim rule, the reconquered city became the residence of the Crown of Aragon and lived a time of splendor until the 15th century. Later the city fell into the hands of Bourbon troops and it was not until the industrial revolution that the city was reborn in modernist splendor. Part of this historical journey has been witnessed by the gargoyles on top of the cathedral walls, which have various forms of animals and even mythological beings such as a unicorn. Next to it, there is one that has the shape of an elephant over which hangs an urban legend that states that the day the elephant falls the end of the world will come.

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Church

Note now the church of Santa Maria de Belém, built between 1502 and 1572. The church has a Latin cross plan, composed of three naves at the same height, joined by a magnificent multi-nerved vault that rests on six pillars with a circular base, and another two recessed ones, hidden by the body of the high choir, where we are. The six pillars are all decorated with Renaissance themes. The windows are decorated with stained glass from the 20th century, author of Abel Manta. Further ahead, you can see the transept, which is the space between the main chapel and the nave. The transept vault was completed by João de Castilho around 1522 and is one of the most glorious audiences of Portuguese architecture, covering a single flight, a width of 30 meters. To the right and left of the transept, there are two side chapels that house altars of saints and the tombs of several members of the royal family. In the background, the main chapel is illuminated by two large side windows and is decorated by a magnificent altarpiece with five paintings by the Mannerist painter Lourenço de Salzedo, around 1572. The choir was designed and built by the master Jerome of Rouen. Already in a mannerist style, contrasting with the Manueline body of the church. This main chapel replaced another that had been initially built, but which would be too small and too small to receive the tombs of King D. Manuel and his wife, according to the will expressed by the monarch in the will.

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Medieval Louvre

12th century. The Louvre construction began in the 12th century (1180), when king Philippe Augustus commanded a fortress to be built on the site in order to protect the city of Paris from English and Norman attacks, while he went for the crusades with his army. More precisely, he ordered the creation of a wall for the whole city, and the Louvre as a bastion. Afterwards, it was used as a prison, a war arsenal and even as a treasury. In the 14th century, its military function was no longer necessary, and King Charles V transformed it into a Royal residence. However, during the Hundred Years War (1337-1453), the kings gradually abandoned Paris for the Loire Valley, which was safer, and the Louvre fell into ruin. In the 16th century, it was queen Catalina of Médicis who made the fortress a Palace, works that continued some kings such as Francis I, Henry II and Henry IV. What we see today, was submerged and forgotten, but it was rediscovered in the 1980s, during the excavation for the preparation of the “Grand Louvre” project, ordered by the French President François Mitterand to Leoh Ming Pei. At that time, the external pyramid was created as a new entrance, and this showroom to show the true origins of the museum. The origin of the name is unknown. There are two theories: It may come from the Latin word "lupara", which means “wolf”, since wolves lived here in the past; or it is a deformation of the old French word "lower", which means tower, and because of its origin as the defense of the city.

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The Sagrada Familia Panciatichi

According to Giorgio Vasari (1568) and Raffaello Borghini (1584), the painting was commissioned from Bronzino by Bartolomeo Panciatichi, whose coat of arms dominates the fort in the background. It depicts, using the sculptural forms of Michelangelo's painting, the meeting of the Holy Family with John the Baptist upon his return from Egypt, as indicated by the presence of the traveling package on which Jesus is sleeping. It has been in the Uffizi Gallery since 1919.

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The Queen's Grove

Originally this was the Great Labyrinth Grove, a place famous at the time for having a life-size labyrinth inspired by Aesop's fables. Louis XIV had fun with his guests by challenging them to find the way out. The only way to achieve this was to use reason, the supreme value in that century. However, Marie Antoinette, the wife of Louis XVI, also stops by Versailles. The Queen's Grove is an "English Garden" created in 1775-1776 to replace the labyrinth created a century earlier in 1669. This is one of the wildest in Versailles if one deviates from the central square to explore the paths and paths sides, with its undergrowth atmosphere. It contains rare trees (tulip, Corsican pine, Lebanon cedar, American copal, etc.) particularly beautiful in autumn and sculptures added in the 19th century. An episode of the famous affair of Queen Marie Antoinette's Necklace took place in 1784 in this grove. In the coming years, this garden will probably disappear in favor of the project to reconstruct the labyrinth grove and its 39 decorated lead fountains.

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Sphinx king Amasis

This head of sphinx would correspond to King Apries or Amasis. It is a monumental head, like few in the world. This life-size head, without being a realistic portrait, was probably sculpted by an artisan eager to restore the morphology of his real model. Prominent cheekbones, small arched eyebrows, small eyes without makeup, wide mouth with well-drawn lips and the receding chin are the anatomical features found in each of the portraits known to this king. Other statues of sphinxes, mostly broken, have been found in several archaeological sites, each of them unique and worth observing.

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Madonna on the Rocks

by Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519). Leonardo's works must be placed in the sixteenth century, in a period of blossoming Italian painting for a revolution of ideas that heralded the Reformation and subsequent counter-reformation. The French King François I was a great admirer of Italian painting and brought Leonardo da Vinci to paint his court in 1516. A royal guest. In the Madonna of the Rocks, the landscape is an essential part of the composition. Mary welcomes the young Saint John, an orphan abandoned in a cave under the protection of the archangel Gabriel, kneeling on his right. The faces express the same tranquillity as the Mona Lisa, but here the dark grotto and the rocky landscape add a dramatic quality that seems to announce the fate of these two babies, Jesus and San Juan. Unlike other representations of this scene where the figures are set in a desert, Leonardo changes the backdrop to a mineral landscape. This would have been very new for the parishioners in that period. The wonderful interaction of hands and looks in this composition is an example of the storyteller's innovative approach to telling stories. Saint John is shown looking at Jesus in recognition of his future sacrifice for humanity. Leonardo da Vinci also shows his masterful use of oil painting and his exceptional understanding of light and shadow. He is the Renaissance man par excellence, artist-engineer, invented a technique called Sfumato which he achieved through the stratification of painting and the creation of smooth transitions between colors and contours. Madonna of the Rocks is one of the most important paintings in the collection of King Francis I. A second Madonna of the Rocks can be seen in the National Gallery in London.

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Spinners

The Fable of Arachne, popularly known as The Spinners, is a canvas by Diego Velázquez. This work is one of the greatest exponents of Spanish baroque painting and is considered one of the great examples of Velázquez's mastery. Thematically it is one of his most enigmatic works, since the true purpose of this work is not yet known. As one of the diplomatic representatives of the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia in the negotiations for the signing of a peace treaty between Spain and the Netherlands, Rubens was called to Madrid, where he would remain from August 1628 to April 1629, by the king. Felipe IV to learn about these negotiations. By sharing a workshop with him during his stay at court, Veláquez became well acquainted with the work of Rubens, consisting of, in addition to creating some 40 original works commissioned by the king and the infanta - among them the Equestrian Portrait of Philip IV and, more later, The Judgment of Paris—copying, or "translating into his own style", several of the mythological fables that Titian painted for Philip II, and which belonged to the royal collection of the Alcázar of Madrid. It is assumed that he painted the painting around 1657, in its period of greatest splendor, for a private client, Pedro de Arce. As the king's painter, Velázquez did not usually attend to private commissions, but in this case he made an exception because Arce was Felipe IV's montero, that is, he organized his monterías (hunting days) and, therefore, had certain influences in the court of Madrid. In an inventory of Arce's assets, carried out in 1664, the work appears as Fable of Arachne. It later belonged to the Duke of Medinaceli, and was transferred to the Real Alcázar of Madrid upon his death in 1711. It was damaged in the fire on Christmas Eve of 1734, a fire that completely destroyed the alcazar.

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Horus

Originally, this bronze statue of the god Horus was covered with precious materials, a golden plaster or gold plated to evoke the rotten flesh of the gods and incrustations of glass or earthenware. These different comforts masked the assemblies of the different parts melted with the lost wax. In the absence of text, style and technique have been used to date the work, probably dating back to the Third Intermediate Period. This statue representing the god Horus in its hybrid form of a man with a falcon's head was probably part of a scene with three characters: Horus and Thoth framing the king and pouring over him the purification of the lustration. In his raised hands, Horus held the vase, now gone, containing the water of the ritual. The statue, fused with lost wax in several tight pieces, is hollow, emptied of its clay core. The incrustations of glass paste or colored mud filled the orbit of his eyes, the locks of the wig and the folds of the loincloth. The granular appearance of the metal's surface suggests that the naked parts of the body were covered with a layer of gold that evoked the rotten flesh of the gods. The appearance of the character is quite representative of the canons of the Third Intermediate Period: the silhouette is powerful, thin and slender, the long bust with high pectorals placed and narrow waist. It is stable, on long legs with the musculature carefully modeled. During this period, Egyptian bronze masters easily mastered all the techniques of their art. This statue of Horus is one of the biggest jewels.

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Botanical Garden

The Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid is a research center of the Higher Council for Scientific Research. Founded by Royal Order of October 17, 1755 by King Fernando VI in the Soto de Migas Calientes, near the Manzanares River, Carlos III ordered the transfer to its current location in 1781, to the Paseo del Prado, next to the Museum of Natural Sciences that was being built (currently the Prado Museum). This botanical garden houses three stepped terraces, plants from America and the Pacific, as well as European plants. The first project of the new garden was entrusted to the scientific advisor Casimiro Gómez Ortega and the architect Francesco Sabatini, who between 1774 and 1781 (year of the inauguration) carried out the initial layout, with a distribution on three levels, and part of the enclosure, in the which highlights the Puerta Real (Paseo del Prado). On this basis, between 1785 and 1789 Juan de Villanueva carried out a second and definitive project, more rational and in accordance with the scientific and educational function that the garden should have. This occupied an area of 10 hectares distributed over three terraced levels that adapted to the orography of the land, arranged in the shape of square barracks, following an octagonal layout and finished off at the corners with circular fountains. The lower two remain today as they were built, while the upper one (Plano de la Flor Terrace) was remodeled in the 19th century with landscaped features.

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Sacristy

The sacristy is a small architectural masterpiece, with its quadrangular plan and the beautiful bundle of ribs radiating from the elegant Renaissance central column that supports the vault. Around the central column there was originally a hand washing. This outbuilding was built between 1517 and 1520, according to the original design by João de Castilho. Along the walls is a magnificent wooden chest of drawers for liturgical garments and instruments. This is one of the best examples of 16th century Portuguese furniture, perhaps by Jerónimo de Rouão. At the top, a backrest with 14 oil paintings on board, from approximately 1600, representing episodes from the life of Saint Jerome, attributed to the most active master of the time, the Mannerist painter Simão Rodrigues. Still, an unusual counter made of exotic woods already in the 17th century. The remaining paintings will come from other spaces, among them the six panels with scenes from the Passion of Christ, written by the Mannerist painter António Campelo.

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Self Portrait

Self-Portrait at Age 63 is a self-portrait by the Dutch artist Rembrandt. One of three dating from 1669, it was one of the last in his series of around 80 self-portraits, painted in the months before his death in October 1669. Despite the proximity of his death and the concentration on his face aged, Rembrandt gives the impression of a self-confident and confident artist. Rembrandt is shown wearing a deep red coat with a fur collar and beret, looking at the viewer with his hands clasped. A damaged signature and date were revealed when the painting was cleaned in 1967, and the work is believed to have been reduced on all four sides. X-ray analysis has shown two pentimenti (changes in the artist's composition): the beret was originally larger and white, and the hands originally had a different position, holding a brush and a stick. His stained, flabby face is carefully painted with many layers of translucent paint, but his robe and background remain dark and his hands are indistinct. Rembrandt used his usual rather limited palette of white lead, ochres and red lakes.

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The labors of Hercules

These two-work paintings of the famous mythological hero are smaller duplicates that belonged to the Gondi family in the early 17th century; They are based on two lost canvases painted by Antonio around 1460 for the Medici and previously exhibited in the large room of their palazzo on Via Larga. The two panels arrived at the Uffizi in 1798; They were lost in the Second World War, recovered in 1975 and displayed in the Gallery. Restored in 1991 Here, too, a fierce struggle is depicted between the hero, his body tensed into a lithe, muscular mass, and the legendary multi-headed monster. The contours are very defined, and the movement of the nerves and tendons is observed down to the last detail. Antonio del Pollaiuolo worked at the time when extensive anatomy studies were being carried out and therefore makes the human body realistic in its moments of greatest emotional excitement. The dramatic force of the episode is expressed in the hero's grimace of fatigue and horror, but also in his certainty of victory. Behind the proudly barbaric figure, blue rivers wind through a wide landscape of green and brown fields, the sky on a blue glaze.

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mother chapel

D. Catherine of Austria, widow of King John III and regent of the kingdom between 1557 and 1562, built this main chapel, to replace the first, because it was too small and too small to receive with honor her royal tombs in - Laws, King D. Manuel and Queen D. María, her husband and her own. The main chapel was commissioned by Jerome de Rouen and inaugurated in 1572. Jerome de Rouo, animated by innovative aesthetic principles, introduced characteristic elements of Mannerist art, of Italian influence, unique in the history of Portuguese architecture. The differences between this chapel and the rest of the church are evident. Here the sobriety of the drawing prevails, flat, direct and rigorous of classicism, and the differentiation of the materials, the colored marbles, in opposition to the lioz limestone, used in the body of the church. On the left side of the chapel were placed the marble tombs of the elephants of King D. Manuel I and Queen D. María, and on the right side of their son, King D. João III and his wife, the Queen D. Catherine of Austria. . In the background, the chapel is decorated with an altarpiece with five paintings from around 1572, written by the Mannerist painter Lourenço de Salzedo, with scenes depicting the Passion of Christ and the Adoration of the Magi below. In the center is the magnificent baroque silver tabernacle by the goldsmith João de Sousa. This tabernacle was offered by King D. Pedro II in 1675, in fulfillment of the promise of his brother, King D. Afonso VI, in gratitude for the victory achieved against the Spanish in the battle of Montes Claros in 1665, with the which ended. The Restoration War definitively recognizes the independence of Portugal, after a period of Iberian union. To the right and left of the transept, the two side chapels house altars of saints and tombs of other members of the royal family.

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Gudea, "colossal"

Gudea is represented life-size, sitting conventionally on a stool, with flared legs joined by two crossbars supporting the seat. The prince is barefoot, hands clasped as a sign of attention to the deity. He is dressed in the long princely mantle with a fringed edge, covering the left arm with one side (the other being brought under the right arm), then entering the neckline, forming folds. Among the many statues dedicated by Gudea, this work is of exceptional interest for the quality of the stone and the sculpture, as well as for the presence, on the knees of the prince, of a tablet bearing an engraved architect's plan . The tablet also hosts a stylus, a ruler and an inscription - unique in its length and content - which covers almost completely. Gudea left us the longest inscriptions we knew in Sumerian, exalting his piety towards the gods in an ideal very different from the Akkadian militarism that preceded it. The inscription here consists of three hundred and sixty-eight boxes divided into nine columns. It starts in the back, then develops on the sides, it covers the entire seat and the bottom of the garment Gudea. The text begins with a list of regular offerings made to the statue of Gudea, as for a cult statue. It is indeed a "living statue", intended to replace the prince before his god for eternity, and responsible for transmitting his words, including the message that the Eninnu was built according to the rules of God and the laws of society.

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Raft of the Medusa

by Théodore Gericault. After the fall of the Empire in 1815, the monarchy was restored and Louis the 18th became king of France. This changed the way art was commissioned. Napoleon trusted artists to portray his empire, kings did not. Therefore, the artists were left to their own devices and the subject became eclectic and sometimes scandalous. The raft of the Medusa is one of those controversial paintings. Gericault chose to paint a true tragedy at sea as the theme of his monumental painting. The piece depicts an improvised raft of desperate men trying to reach safety. The Medusa was a French frigate that sank off the coast of Africa whilst on a mission to colonize Senegal. For 13 days, 150 men clung to the raft and eventually only 10-15 of them survived. Géricault depicts the distant ship that finally rescues the survivors. Those who have more strength and hope get up and make rags to attract the attention of the ship. Those dead, dying or desperate cling to the raft. The weight of their bodies and limbs emphasizes the horror of the scene. The strong contrast of light and shadow, from the pale bodies to the dark agitated sea and the sky, add dramatic tension. The composition of the painting is classical and we can see this through the pyramidal fall of the forms. However, it is also very romantic through its brutal realism. The realistic representation of death created a scandal in 1819. It is also a political painting and seems to be criticizing the incompetence of the ship's captain and, therefore, against the recently restored monarchy. The presence of a Negro was also interpreted as a protest against slavery. Gericault was moved by this event and spent a lot of time researching, interviewing survivors and even drawing corpses of the dead. He learned that the survivors had to resort to cannibalism. When it was presented at the Salon in 1819, the painting was criticized for being the antithesis of 'ideal beauty', something that the public was accustomed to seeing in the Salon during this time. Gericault also received praise for the political audacity of painting and its attack on the newly reinstated monarchy.

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The card players

Paul Cézanne. between 1890 and 1895. Cézanne had surely seen in the museum of Aix-en-Provence, his hometown, The Card Players attributed to the Le Nain brothers. In the 1890s, the artist dealt with this Caravagesque-inspired theme on several occasions, providing the confrontation with exceptional gravity. For the subtle play of gestures and glances, Cézanne replaces the massive silhouettes and silent concentration of the characters. The bottle, in which the light is reflected, constitutes the central axis of the composition. It separates the space into two symmetrical zones, which marks the opposition between the players. These would be peasants observed by the painter on Jas de Bouffan's paternal estate, near Aix. The man smoking the pipe has been identified as "Uncle Alexandre", a local gardener. Of the five paintings dedicated by the painter to this theme, this is the most sober. Here everything contributes in the end to providing a monumental aspect to the composition, for the benefit of a chromaticism of sumptuous nuances. The recurrence of card players in Cezanian art in recent years has given rise to an interesting interpretation: Perhaps the confrontation of both players would symbolize the fight that the artist faced against his father, to have his painting recognized, represented here for "the card"?

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Jaume I Station

The tour begins at the exit of the Jaume I station, on line four or yellow of the Barcelona metro system. The exit, located in Plaça dels Ángels, or Plaza del Ángel, on one side of the Layetana road, was inaugurated in 1926 with the Spanish name of Jaime I as part of a branch of the Greater Barcelona Metro, which with the Merger of said company and Ferrocarril Transversal Metropolitano de Barcelona became part of line III. In the 1970s it was decided to separate this branch between Aragón and Correos from Line III and, with extensions at both ends, convert it into a new line: Line IV. It had to function as the terminal of the line for three years, due to multiple incidents that delayed the opening of the Barceloneta Station, especially an underground explosion in November 1973, which destroyed a large part of the galleries built. Finally, on March 15, 1976, the extension to Barceloneta was released. In 1982 the station catalanized its name as Jaume I, while Line IV adopted Arabic numbering and was renamed Line 4. James I of Aragon or Jaume the Conqueror in Catalan, was the king of Aragon, Valencia and Mallorca, count of Barcelona and lord of other Fiefs between 1213 and 1276, the year of his death. The title of Conqueror is awarded to him following his successful conquest of the Balearic Islands: Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera. And later, he reconquered the community of Valencia and Murcia from the Muslims. Around the exit of the station that owes its name to this historical figure there are several cafes and food places, including the Dolceria de la Colmen, a pastry shop that dates back to 1849 and makes traditional Catalan sweets and cakes, permeating the square. an angelic smell. The tour continues next to this candy store and Pastisseria along the Baixada or Bajada de la Llibreteria.

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Temple of Isis

The temple dates back to the 2nd century BC and was dedicated to the Egyptian goddess Isis, whose cult spread throughout the Roman Empire. The entrance, which opens on the south side of the Via del Tempio d'Iside, bears a dedicatory inscription to its reconstruction after the earthquake of 62 AD. The reconstruction was financed by the freedman Numerius Popidius Ampliatus on behalf of his son Celsinus. The entrance opens to a courtyard surrounded by a four-sided portico. The porch was decorated in the fourth style with red panels containing priests in ceremonial dress and Egyptian landscapes separated by architectural themes with small Nilotic scenes or naval battles above a lower orange frieze of lionesses, sphinxes, dragons and dolphins. The upper area contained floating temples and small paintings of landscapes and still lifes on a white background. All surviving decoration can be seen in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples in a series of rooms dedicated specifically to the temple and its finds (rooms LXXIX - LXXXII and LXXXIV). The temple, which stands on a raised podium in the center of the courtyard, has a porticoed entrance with niches on either side of the entrance to the cella. The walls were originally covered in white stucco imitating the opus quadratum, while along the back wall was a raised pedestal designed to support statues of Isis and Osiris. In a niche at the back of the podium was a statue of Dionysus with a panther, a gift from Numerius Popidius Ampliatus. The main altar of the temple is located to the left of the steps with a second altar on the south side of the podium. On the east side of the complex is a small temple-like structure with a staircase leading to an underground cistern containing the sacred waters of the Nile. The small temple is known as the Purgatorium, the place where purification rites were performed. The façade has a broken triangular pediment and a frieze with two processions of priests converging towards the center. Mars with Venus and Perseus with Andromeda are shown in relief on the outer side walls.

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Fossar de Les Morenes

The Fossar de les Moreres is a place of great symbolic importance where the weight of history occupies a central place. On one side of Santa Marián del Mar we find the Fossar de les Morenes, a square located in the Ribera neighborhood, where the War Memorial of the Fallen in the War of Succession of 1714 is observed. With the flame always lit a cauldron stands in front of a red granite wall on the red brick floor as well. The wars of succession occurred when the Catalan leaders joined forces with the British Crown to fight for Charles of Austria for the throne of Spain, while Castile was favorable to Philip d'Anjou. When England withdraws, the Principality of Barcelona alone decides to confront France, which proposed Philip V as King. Philip's French troops take over the city in the same way. September 11 has become the National Holiday of Catalonia, the Diada. That day in 1714, Barcelona surrendered to the Bourbons and a time of repression against the Catalans began, with the abolition of laws and institutions. In 1989, architect Carme Fiol uncovered the exact place where the victims of that site were buried, demolishing the houses there and covering it with red brick. The striking cauldron represents the living memory of those who fell in that war, and the red of the bricks and the wall, the blood shed during the taking of the city by the Bourbon troops, after a long siege. Although it was formerly a parish cemetery, starting in the 19th century it was converted into a square.

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The Transfiguration

Raphael Sanzio, 1520. It is likely that in 1516 Cardinal Giulio de Medici asked to carry out this work, with completion date in 1520. Here we see an example from Raphael's late period. In this work the painter manages to unite two episodes: that of the Transfiguration of Christ on Mount Tabor, between Moses, Elijah, Peter, John and James, which occupies the upper part of the painting and that of the lower part, where the apostles awaiting the resurrection of the Lord, as well as the miracle of the demon possessed. With these motifs we try to convey that Grace is obtained only with Faith, through the symbol of the woman kneeling in the foreground. Although the work is divided into two planes, they are connected by lighting and chromatic effects. The upper part, solemn and serene, contrasts with the whirlwind of arms and movement of the lower part, violently illuminated by the light descending from Christ. Unfinished in its lower half due to the early death of the master (at the age of 36, due to a sudden illness), it was finished by his disciple Giulio Romulo.

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The Harvesters or The Gleaners

With this painting, we find the product of ten years of research carried out by Jean-François Millet about the harvesters or those also known as the gleaners, since they had to collect the ears that were forgotten in the harvests. They had to do all this before nightfall. With these women, Millet wanted to represent the proletariat, particularly the rural one. The painting is famous for showing the reality of rural society, which led to criticism from the French upper classes who repudiated this interpretation of the so-called lower classes and was even considered a dangerous painting when it was exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1857. Millet He always wanted to show the true face of the working class, so that people could see the reality of the conditions under which many French people in rural regions lived. This painting later became a patriotic symbol for the French during World War I and was in fact used as an important instrument for young men to enlist. At the same time, the painting wants to show the value of the rural working class and show the importance of work on a daily basis, regardless of the difficulty or fatigue that may exist at the end. And you might wonder why the field? Well, because the countryside is what provides food and various products and expects to be treated with quality and respect as well.

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Man's Mummy

This mummy, one of the best preserved in the world, is that of a man who lived in the Ptolemaic period. According to the customs of this period, the body of the deceased is carefully wrapped in strips of linen whose disposition reaches, especially at the level of the face, a high artistic quality. It is covered with several elements: a mask that covers the head, a large neck resting on the chest, an apron deployed on its legs and finally, an envelope for the feet. This mummy is, according to the results of an x-ray examination, an adult man. His face is covered with a mask with harmonious features on top of which is represented by a winged scarab, the symbol of rebirth. The wide collar that covers your chest is made up of several rows of pearls and has chisels in the shape of a hawk's head. Several scenes divided into registers occur on the apron that covers his body. One can see the mummy lying on a bed surrounded by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys and the four sons of Horus. Finally, in the box with the feet, two representations of the funeral god Anubis take place. The texts list the names of all the gods present to whom the deceased trusts his destiny, calling with all his vows a beautiful funeral in the necropolis.

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Trinity of the Mountains

The first part of the church was built between 1502 and 1519 in the Gothic style; The oldest part, covered with pointed cross vaults, is delimited by a bronze fence. A new building with a façade adorned with two symmetrical bell towers, the work of Giacomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana, was added to the Gothic nave in the mid-16th century. The church was consecrated in 1585 by Sixtus V. Between 1585 and 1586, Pope Sixtus V commissioned Domenico Fontana to open a road linking the Pincio with the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. At the end of the works, however, the level of the road had become decidedly lower than the entrance to the convent and the church due to the excavations necessary to level the route. To remedy the problem, the architect designed and built the staircase with two converging ramps leading to the church: the pillars placed at the two ends of the staircase carry the coat of arms of the Peretti family.

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Gudea, "to the god Ningishzida"

Prince of the independent kingdom of Lagash at the end of the third millennium, Gudea is known for his piety and intense activity as a temple builder. This statuette is the only complete copy of a series of diorite representations of this prince, alternately standing or sitting. An inscription engraved on the loincloth indicates that it was dedicated to the god Ningishzida. The statuary corresponding to his reign, especially made up of his own representations, is imbued with this piety which contrasts with the bellicose themes of the art of the Akkadian period. Thus, the inscription on the statue consecrates it to the god Ningishzida, who is also known to be Gudea's personal boss; it then enumerates the temples built by the prince, ending with the sanctuary of the same Ningishzida built in the oldest center of the city, where our statuette was erected. Wearing a royal turban adorned with stylized curls, Gudea's hairless face is calm and smiling; his almond eyes are dominated by large eyebrows conventionally figured as fishbones. He wears a draped and fringed coat, already known from the Akkadian period, revealing an arm with marked musculature; his hands are joined as a sign of piety. The tranquil and powerful attitude of the prince is strengthened by the dark aspect of the diorite, common to all its representations.

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Madonna and Child in Majesty Surrounded by Angels

1270 Century by Cimabue. The works of art in this gallery mark the end of the Byzantine period and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance. In the thirteenth century, Italy was engaged in painting and, at the end of the century, an artist named Giotto invented a new way of painting people and nature. He painted expressive faces and landscapes that seemed more natural and changed the way people painted forever. Cimabue was Giotto's teacher. We can still see the influence of Byzantine art on his huge painting panel, which is more than 4 meters high and where the artist represents two columns of angels on each side of a monumental Virgin Mary. It has the traditional gold background that is typical of Byzantine art. However, these elements are accompanied by a smoother execution, looking for a new approach to light and shade or chromatic effects. Despite the flat aspect of the angels surrounding Mary, a new treatment of space is exemplified through the throne on which Mary is seated. The artist expresses a desire to build space in perspective. This was totally innovative in 1280. The room you are now it is dedicated to Italian painting, but if you look over your head, you will see a magnificent ceiling adorned with the names of the leading European artists, from Van Dyck and Da Vinci to Poussin and Lebrun. They take your respective photo! Walking from this early Renaissance painting to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, you will see how artists refine the treatment of space and invent new painting techniques, introducing a desire to capture human emotions and natural postures.

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central bathrooms

The central baths are located at the intersection of two of Pompeii's main streets, Via Stabiana and Via di Nola, and occupy the entire interior of the insula. The bathrooms were built as part of the urban renewal carried out after the AD62 earthquake. The design followed the latest thinking in contemporary bathroom practices, letting more light inside and providing more space for exercise outside. The most obvious feature in the design of the Central Baths is that it had only a single set of bathrooms, as shown in the plan alongside. This may mean that the baths were for men only or that women may have had access to the baths at certain times. Entrances on the north, west and south sides would have led directly to the palaestra, while the service entrances would have opened onto a large corridor along the east side of the complex. The main entrance may have been on the north side through the vestibule, across the palaestra into the room, probably the apodterio, although the room was never finished. The south side of the apodyterium opened onto the frigidarium which had three large windows overlooking the palaestra. Instead of a round room with a central bathtub, as in the Forum and Stabian bathrooms, here is a large, rectangular room with a cold bath sink along its east wall. This is an innovation that also occurs in the Sarno Baths. Doors on the south side of the frigidarium led to the tepidarium, which in turn opened to the caldarium. Both rooms had three large windows that overlooked the palaestra. The five smaller windows on the south side of the caldarium overlooked what would likely be a narrow garden area. The baths would also have had a laconicum (f) accessed from the northeast corner of the caldarium. The laconicum, lit by three small round windows set in the vaulted ceiling, would have had intense dry heat to promote intense sweating to purify and detoxify the body.

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Egyptian manuscripts

The hieroglyphs were a writing system invented by the ancient Egyptians. It was used from the predynastic period until the fourth century. The ancient Egyptians used three basic types of writing: hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic; the latter corresponds to the Late Period of Egypt. The hieroglyphs are characterized by the use of signs, whose meaning is known thanks to the deciphering of the texts contained in the Rosetta Stone, which was found in 1799, in which a decree is recorded in three types of writing: hieroglyphic, demotic and Uncial Greek It was possible to decipher this document thanks to the studies carried out by Thomas Young and, fundamentally, to Jean-François Champollion who managed to decipher the method of its reading in 1822, 23 years after the stone was discovered. By extension, the hieroglyphic sign has also been given to some of the graphemes of the cuneiform script and others. The reason is that those few signs would not use the phonetic principle, but the ideographic principle of representation of writing.

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Edith Piaf's grave

La Vie en rose…. Edith Gionnava Gasson, famous as Edith Piaf, may be the most famous French singer of the 20th century. She sings about love, about Paris and the turmoil of the lives of the poor. Born on the steps of Belleville Street, Edith Piaf sang her way out of misery in bars and clubs. Her unique voice soon made her a star. She lived a short and passionate life. She died in 1963, at the age of 47. More than 5,000 people attended his funeral. Today, her rather simple tomb is always colorful and flowered by visitors who pay homage to Môme Piaf. She is buried with her father, her second husband Theo Sarapo and her daughter Marcelle, who had died in 1935, aged 2.

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Bargello Museum

The Bargello, or National Museum of Bargello (Museo Nazionale del Bargello) is a must-see when it comes to culture, one of the outstanding cultural centers in all of Florence. Inside, masterpieces by Michelangelo, Donatello and Ghiberti among other important sculptors are included. Michelangelo's 'Apollo', Donatello's 'David' and Giambologna's 'Architecture' are some of the outstanding works that can be seen inside. The museum is located inside the Borgello Palace, known as Palazzo del Popolo. This building was built in 1255 with the aim of being the Consistory of Florence, but it was later used as a prison. The tower, even before the building, had the Montanina bell, which was noted when the inhabitants of Florence had to be summoned in case of war or siege. It has been the headquarters of the Council of Justice and the police, and the prisons continued to be used until 1857, when they were moved to the former Murate convent. Since 1865 it has been the headquarters of the Bargello museum, which, as we mentioned before, is mainly dedicated to sculpture. It was in 1886 when the definitive designation as a sculpture museum took place, coinciding with the celebration of the fifth centenary of Donatello's birth. Inside the museum we find a collection of Renaissance sculpture considered one of the most notable in the world. The building has had multiple uses, since it began as the residence of the 'Podestà', then it was a prison where executions were carried out until 1786, and later it ended up being what it is now, a museum of works of great cultural value.

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Amapolas - The Poppies

Poppies was presented in 1874, during an exhibition by the photographer Nadar to the public during the first exhibition of the impressionist group in the former workshops of the photographer Nadar, in 1874. It is an oil painting on canvas with dimensions of 50cm high x 65cm wide and was painted in the fall of 1873 In this painting, Monet shows the importance of the environment in a theme and motif that would be repeated throughout his artistic work, inspired by what he experienced in Argenteuil in 1871 and it was the colors offered by the landscapes of this region that They inspired not only him, but several artists, specifically Monet was inspired by the fields of wildflowers that were on the outskirts of the city. In this painting we can see the personal interpretation that Monet gives it, especially in the importance that the painting takes, which, although in this case it is that of a walk, takes a backseat to the beauty and mixture of colors that we can see in the field and the sky, thus creating a work of impressionist style that continues to be enjoyed over the years. This painting is also proof of this new trend among impressionist painters who realized that they had to leave the workshop and start painting outdoors, returning to Claude Monet as one of the fathers of impressionism and plain air.

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Royal Gate

This royal door was the work of several artisans, associated in its development and installation, considered the best professionals in their disciplines at the time. Gilded and ornamented with rich pillars or pilasters, the gate originally opened with two portals opening onto two side courtyards called "Cours des Princes" and "Cours de la Chapelle". The old grid extended between the columns of the pavilions of the side wings located at the end of the castle, which have now been replaced by the Dufour pavilions and the Gabriel wing. Due to the construction of another wing of the Palace, the Gabriel wing, in the last years of the reign of Louis XV, it was replaced by a simple wooden door, normally temporary, but which will remain present until the end of the reign of Louis XVI. The maintenance of this simple stockade (due to the non-completion of the construction of the Gabriel wing) will facilitate access for the rioters of October 5 and 6, 1789, which will facilitate entry to the castle and the building. In 1838, an equestrian statue of Louis XIV was installed at its location. It will then move when installing the new grid. Between 2005 and 2008, a new grid was built. 15 tons of iron and 100,000 sheets of gold were used in a technique called gold leaf. The majority of the funds, estimated at 5 million euros, come from the sponsorship of the Monnoyeur public works group, which celebrated its 100th anniversary that year. The gate was financed by private mercenaries. The French people had already paid enough.

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Pineapple Courtyard

Named after the enormous pineapple sculpture that we see, this patio was built by Donato Bramante in 1506 at the request of Pope Julius II who sought to connect the palace of Innocent VIII with the Sistine Chapel. The enormous bronze in the Patio de la Piña, about 4 meters high, was found during medieval work carried out in the remains of a chamber of the Baths of Agrippa, north of the Largo di Torre Argentina and in the old sector of the Campo de Mars. It seems to have originally belonged to the nearby but disappeared temple of the Sanctuary of Isis, also the place of origin of the Marble Foot on the street of the same name, an interesting fact since it would already connect the symbol with traditions of Egyptian origin. It would be the largest pineapple cone figure ever found in the world. There are theories that would say that this is a large pagan symbol kept within the Vatican itself. In esoteric language, the pineapple, in reference to the pineal gland, is the symbol of the Mind's Eye, a rather multicultural concept. The “awakening of the third eye” is the process of self-knowledge, of deepening the notion of oneself. Among those initiated into occult knowledge, this symbol is a clear nod of recognition. This symbol is represented, in its various versions, in a large number of ancestral “pagan” cultures, including the Egyptian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Hindu, among others.

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The origin of the world

Gustave Courbet. 1866. Gustave Courbet is the first realist. Concept created by himself to define his vision of how art should interpret the world. A raw look, where the body is real, skin and bones, the violence is overwhelming and nature is wild. A vision clearly antagonistic to Cabanel's Venus and closer to Manet's Olympia, but with an emphasis more linked to the frankness of the image than to the use of color. The Origin of the World is a work so frank and beautifully executed that it manages to fascinate by presenting the female anatomy without any mythological, literary or historical excuse and it is surprising that to this day, more than 150 years after its first presentation, this painting continues provoking controversy and technological platforms such as Facebook and the one you are using at this moment, censor this work. It's impossible not to think how surprised Courbet would be to see this.

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Orsan Michelle Church

In the 13th century the small oratory was ruined and a grain market was built, which ended up demolished. Later, in 1337, the construction of a new building was commissioned, the church of Orsanmichelle, which was used as a chapel by the most powerful guilds of artisans and merchants in Florence. On the ground floor are the 13th century arches that formed the market loggia, the second floor was for trades while on the third there was a municipal granary, which was maintained in case there was a time of famine or war. The exterior of the church is a façade with 14 niches, full of masterpieces including 'The Virgin and Child' and 'The Four Crowned Saints' among others. Many historians choose Arnolfo di Cambio as the author of the design, others instead opt for a joint work of several authors. The old grain market gave way to the Church of Orsanmichele that is currently known between 1380 and 1404. The interior is divided into two naves with six square pillars, it is a vaulted space that serves as an example of interior decoration that was in Florence at the time. The statues of OrsanMichelle mean devotion and pride for Florentine merchants, which is why the originals have been removed and are, for the most part, in the OrsanMichelle museum, which is on the upper floor of the church. It is said that the building was converted into a church due to a mysterious apparition of the Virgin, which turned the market into a pilgrimage site that led to the construction of two more floors in 1830. As it was, the market ended up being moved, the ground floor became a church, stained glass windows were built inside and on the two upper floors there is a museum.

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Enceladus Grove

It was created in 1675 by Louis XIV and implemented by André Le Nôtre between 1675 and 1678. In 1678, an octagonal grass ring and eight rock fountains were installed around the central fountain. These additions, as well as the steps connecting the eight octagonal fountains and above the trellis gallery surrounding the grove were abolished in 1706. The fountain was conceived as an allegory hinting at Louis XIV's victory over the Fronde. The central basin shook, imitating the lava of the volcano. In mythology, Enceladus is a giant that is buried among stones in the place where the Etna volcano is. The myth says that when he tries to come out and expires from his mouth it is the volcano that is erupting. Another analysis proposed that the legend of the revolt of the giants, followed by the gods crushing them, is used by the artist to symbolize the fall of Fouquet, Louis XIV's superintendent of finances when he was young and his Regent was Mazarin, and that he was then dismissed and, indeed, humiliated by the king. It is said that when Versailles did not exist, and Louis XIV lived in the Louvre, Nicolas Fouquet built the palace of Vaux-le-Vicomte, whose gardens were the first great example of French-style gardens. At the inauguration he holds a party in honor of Luis where he shows off all his money and Luis finally, envious, accuses him of corruption and sends him to the Bastille, a prison at the time. Fouquet would be the famous man in the iron mask, who cannot speak to say that he had not been corrupt but that his only sin had been to demonstrate more economic power than the king. Louis

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Samnite Gymnasium

It is called "Samnite" because the construction, as evidenced by a dedicated inscription, dates back to pre-Roman times, when Pompeii was inhabited by people belonging to the Samnite people (2nd century BC). The original colonnade of tuff columns revolved around the central courtyard, but during renovation work on the nearby temple of Isis, the east side was demolished. There is the pedestal in the center of a short side where award ceremonies and events were held. According to the Greek model, the palestra was used to train men and boys; Not by chance, a door connects the arena patio with the Triangular Forum, where a track was found to compete. To emphasize the athletic-military aspect of the building, the people of Pompeii placed a marble statue in the courtyard, now in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, a faithful copy of a very famous work of art, Doryphoros ("bearer of the spear "), made by one of the most famous Greek sculptors of the 5th century BC. C., Polykleitos.

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Apollon Baths Grove

The Grove of the Baths of Apollo dates from the reign of Louis XVI and was built between 1778 and 1781. Apollo is seen served by the nymphs and the Horses of the Sun that Jules Hardouin-Mansart places under golden canopies and on pedestals bordered by a basin . The two parts of the grove are completely modified under Louis XVI and the painter Hubert Robert conceives an English garden whose center is occupied by a lake dominated by a huge fictitious rock adorned with waterfalls and a cave in which Apollo's group settled. while the two groups of the Sun Horses are placed on both sides. The style is different, it is an example of an Anglo-Chinese garden that began to be fashionable in the 18th century. In 1666, Girardon and Regnaudin were paid for the creation of the group of Apollo served by the nymphs, a set of seven statues, the first masterpiece carved in marble and probably the most important for Versailles. The central figure of the composition was loosely inspired by the Apollo Belvedere and also evoked that of the King; Thus the two French artists produced a "true manifesto of modern sculpture, worthy of rivaling the only two large-scale ancient groups known at the time, the Farnese Bull and the Medici Niobids." This set was completed in 1675.

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St Geronimo

Leonardo da Vinci, 1480. It is not known who commissioned this work and it was found in two parts and unfinished. Leonardo's inventories mention that he made several San Jerónimos, although only this one is the one that has been found. The theme is Saint Jerome in the desert. Jerónimo is presented as a penitent, occupying the center of the painting with a quite dramatic posture, especially if we analyze his face, which manages to convey his suffering and his spirituality at the same time. In the foreground his symbol extends, a large lion whose body and tail make a double spiral along the base of the pictorial space. The saint is at the entrance to a dark cavern. The other notable feature is the schematic landscape of steep rocks against which the figure is silhouetted. To its right there are rocks, while to the left there is a landscape characterized by a set of sharp peaks, which are barely perceived in the greenish preparation of the table. This abrupt setting gives the painting emotion and a certain mystery. The only vestige of civilization that appears in it is a classical architecture, a church, drawn in the upper right part of the panel.

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Stained glass

All stained glass windows in the monastery were installed in 1938 and were painted by the artist Abel Manta, executed by R. Leone. The stained glass windows that cover the two side windows of the river represent images of the Founding Kings, King D. Manuel and his wife, D. María, each with their respective patron saints, Saint Jerome and Saint John the Baptist. D. Manuel is accompanied by Vasco da Gama, before his departure for India, and D. María is surrounded by her aias and some monks from Jerónimo. In the center is represented the image of Santa Maria de Belém or Nossa Senhora dos Reis, with the Virgin and Child on her lap. In the background, an image of Lisbon before the earthquake of 1755; and below, the ships of the Discoveries.

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Las Meninas

Las Meninas (as this painting has been known since the 19th century) or The Family of Philip IV (as described in the 1734 inventory) is considered the masterpiece of the Spanish Golden Age painter Diego Velázquez. Finished in 1656, according to Antonio Palomino, a date unanimously accepted by critics, it corresponds to the artist's last stylistic period, that of full maturity. It is a painting made in oil on a large canvas formed by three bands of fabric sewn vertically, where the figures in the foreground are represented life-size. It is one of the most analyzed and commented pictorial works in the art world. Although it was described in some detail by Antonio Palomino and mentioned glowingly by some artists and travelers who had the opportunity to see it in the palace, it did not achieve a true international reputation until 1819, when, after the opening of the Prado Museum, it could be copied and viewed by a broader audience. The central theme is the portrait of the Infanta Margaret of Austria, placed in the foreground, surrounded by her servants, "las meninas", although the painting also represents other characters. On the left side you can see part of a large canvas, and behind it Velázquez himself takes a self-portrait working on it. The artist solved all the problems of space composition with great skill, thanks to his mastery of color and his great ease in characterizing the characters. The vanishing point of the composition is near the character who appears in the background opening a door, where the placement of a light source demonstrates, once again, the mastery of the painter, who manages to make the spectators' eyes travel throughout its entirety. representation.7​8​ A mirror placed in the background reflects the images of King Philip IV and his wife Mariana of Austria, a medium that the painter used to ingeniously make known what he was painting, according to Palomino, although some historians have interpreted that it would be the reflection of the kings themselves entering the painting session or, according to others, posing to be portrayed by Velázquez: in this case, the Infanta Margarita and her companions would be visiting the painter in his workshop. The foreground figures are resolved by loose, long brushstrokes with small touches of light. The lack of definition increases towards the background, the execution being more shallow until the figures are left in darkness. This same technique is used to create the nebulous atmosphere in the upper part of the painting, which has usually been highlighted as the most successful part of the composition. The architectural space is more complex than in other paintings by the painter: it is the only one where it appears the ceiling of the room. The depth of the environment is accentuated by the alternation of the window jambs and the picture frames hanging on the right wall, as well as the perspective sequence of the chandelier hooks on the ceiling. This dim setting highlights the infanta's strongly illuminated group.​ As with most of Velázquez's paintings, the work is not dated or signed and its dating is based on information from Palomino and the apparent age of the infanta, born in 1651. It is on display in the Prado Museum in Madrid , where it entered in 1819, from the royal collection.

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Apollo Fountain

The Apollo Fountain is the large main fountain that marks a separation in the center between the great east-west axis of symmetry formed by the green carpet and the great canal. The castle garden, designed by André Le Nôtre, was built to illustrate the solar myth of Apollo and, through this, the splendor of the Sun King. The Apollo basin fountain is a central element of this garden. Louis XIV later added the spectacular and famous gilded lead work of Apollo riding his chariot. This piece, built by Tuby based on a design by Le Brun, is based on the legend of Apollo, the god of the Sun and the icon of the King. It features the god emerging from the water in anticipation of his daily flight over the land. Tuby made this monumental group in the Gobelins manufacture between 1668 and 1670, when it was transported to Versailles and put in place and gilded the following year. The figure symbolizes dawn, the beginning of the day, with Apollo looking west, at the castle, and showing his power as God and observing his symbol of power.

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The Grand Canal

The Grand Canal of Versailles is the largest basin in the park of the Palace of Versailles. In the shape of a cross, it was built between 1667 and 1679, at the instigation of Le Nôtre. The Royal Academy of Sciences initially dissuaded the "king's gardener" from embarking on such an enterprise because the land, a marshy area called the "stinking pond" which was at the source of many diseases among the Versailleses, was then very uneven. The plan of the Grand Canal today is in the shape of a cross whose main east-west perspective is located on the axis of the castle and measures 1,670 km. While the perpendicular branch (which was dug first), oriented from north to south and 1.5 km long, consists of two arms: the northern one that goes to Trianon is 400 meters, while the southern branch that goes to the Royal Menagerie (now extinct) is 600 meters. Completed in 1679, the Grand Canal will serve as the starting point for fireworks during the sumptuous royal celebrations that Louis XIV hosted at Versailles. It is sometimes read that every year on September 5, the anniversary of the birth of Louis XIV (in 1638), the sun sets in line with the Grand Canal. The sun would be reflected throughout the canal, it would come out through the Apollo fountain, it would go up the green carpet until it reached the palace, where the rays would multiply in the hall of mirrors where Luis would be prepared for the Sun, his brother, him themselves say: Happy Birthday. In winter, when freezing prevented all navigation, the Grand Canal was transformed into an ice rink welcoming skaters and sledders. Beyond the decorative and recreational requirements of this aspect of the garden, the Grand Canal also played a practical role. In fact, located at a low point in the park, it received the flowing water fountains located in the upstream gardens. It was then pumped through a network of pumps powered by windmills and horsemills, and returned to the tank placed on the roof of the Thétys cave to fill the fountains. This hydraulic system then operated in a closed loop. An area of the Grand Canal is called Little Venice, since on a visit the Duke of Venice came and brought as a gift 4 gondolas with the respective gondoliers to place them in the canal. Imagine at that time that when you couldn't find entertainment elsewhere in the gardens, you could come to this area and sail with gondoliers who sang in Italian.

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Temple of Osiris

This is an example of a temple that was built for the gods, in this case, Osiris. Many temples were built in the place where this temple was found. All of them were extensively adorned with pottery offerings and were probably substitutes for living sacrifices that were made inside the temple. On an indeterminate date, a great cleansing of the temple offerings would have been made, leaving it as we can see today. To appreciate it better, go around it to observe the symbols drawn that show different scenes of the god's life.

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Girl in a Large Hat

This woman with her wide sun hat and alluring bare shoulder is similar to the attractive shepherdesses who often appear in Dutch paintings. She offers a small basket of fruit to the viewer in an unmistakably erotic gesture. Originally, the image was intended to be displayed high on a wall, above a door or mantel. That's why he looks at us. Caesar van Everdinge, author of this painting, was a Dutch baroque painter. Little information is known about his training, but from his production it is inferred that he stood out in portraits and in works with scenes of mythological, historical or religious themes, as well as in half-length figures.

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Carrefour Curie

Carrefour Curie is an iconic location located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. It takes its name from Marie Curie, the famous Polish-French scientist who won two Nobel Prizes. This intersection is a popular meeting point for tourists and locals. The Carrefour Curie is located at the intersection of rue Soufflot and rue Saint-Jacques, near the famous Notre-Dame cathedral. It is a lively and vibrant place, surrounded by many cafes, restaurants and shops. The architecture of Carrefour Curie is impressive, with historic buildings and ornate facades. The cobbled streets and old lampposts add to the charm of this place. Visitors can stroll through the picturesque streets and enjoy the unique atmosphere of this neighborhood. The Carrefour Curie is also known for its lively nightlife. Many bars and clubs can be found nearby, providing visitors with an unforgettable nightlife experience. Music lovers can enjoy live concerts at local bars, while partygoers can dance the night away at trendy clubs. In addition to its lively atmosphere, Carrefour Curie is also an important cultural venue. It is home to several renowned academic institutions, including Paris-Sorbonne University and the Collège de France. Students and researchers mingle with tourists, creating an intellectual and cosmopolitan atmosphere. For history buffs, the Carrefour Curie also offers easy access to many tourist sites. Notre-Dame Cathedral, the Pantheon and the Jardin du Luxembourg are all nearby. Visitors can explore these iconic locations and learn more about the history and culture of Paris. In conclusion, the Carrefour Curie is an essential place to visit during your stay in Paris. Whether you're interested in history, culture, nightlife, or just the city's lively atmosphere, this hub offers something for everyone. Don't miss the opportunity to discover this unique place and create unforgettable memories.

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Mold ceremonial gold cape

Composed of gold leaves, bronze strips and leather inside, this cape was made from a single gold ingot between 1900 and 1600 BC, during the European Bronze Age. Originally found in Wales by quarry workers in 1833, it was inside a type of stone tomb and was carried by a skeleton. The identity of its owner was never known, but due to the dimensions of the piece it could be a thin woman or a child. Whoever used it must also have had great power and wealth, probably thanks to nearby Great Orme, the largest copper mine in north-west Europe, and an important trading center for prehistoric communities. It is believed that it could have been part of a ceremonial costume, linked to religious rites. During those times people in Britain did not live in permanent villages, nor did they build cities or palaces. The Bronze Age Britons lived in communities that moved with their flocks and possessions across fields, burying their dead in wheelbarrows. Even so, this constant movement was not an impediment to creating incredibly sophisticated objects such as the gold cape, nor to maintaining an extensive commercial network that covered the entire northwest of Europe.

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Diorama of a Slave Dance

The scene you see in front of you represents a 'Du', a type of performance with music and dance that took place on the plantations of Suriname during the 19th century. Both the artists and the public were slaves from Africa. The central figures were the 'afrankeri' or narrator (in this case the woman on the left), and the king (the man dressed in red on the far right). These dance communities held such parties several times a year, with performances that often had a critical social charge. There were usually several 'Du' in the cities, and they competed with each other to prove which was the best. The author of the work, Gerrit Schouten, was an artist recognized for creating dioramas, or models, in paper mache and wood to represent moments of daily life in Suriname. His creations were very popular among Europeans living in that country, who admired the 'Du' as a folkloric expression and bought the dioramas as souvenirs.

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Domus Aurea Bathtub

After the burning of the city, in 64 AD. C, the city was 80% destroyed. Emperor Nero, according to tradition, is said to have taken advantage of this moment of crisis to do two main things: Start the persecution of Christians, making them guilty of the great fire, and extract 280 public hectares, in the area where it stands today. the coliseum, to privatize them, and hence the construction of the 80-hectare ''Domus Aurea'' (golden house). With the fall of Nero's empire, due to a series of political and economic mismanagement, the so-called ''Damnatio Memoriae'' will be applied to the Domus Aurea, that is, erasing or damaging the memory of a disgraced individual. In this way the domus Aurea was destroyed, being the foundations of later constructions, such as the baths of Trajan or Titus. During the urban reforms carried out in Rome in the 16th century, the Domus Aurea was found by chance, thanks to the unexpected fall of a passer-by that revealed the pictorial jewels that were still there. The enormous red porphyry cup in the center of the room is believed to have belonged to the domus aurea, and later reused for the baths of Titus, one of the emperors who participated in the construction of the Colosseum. The red porphyry bowl or bathtub has a diameter of five meters and a capacity of forty people. The most curious thing about this bathtub, perhaps, is that it was a monolithic piece of red porphyry, imported from Egypt, since red porphyry was called "imperial marble" due to its cost of extraction and carving, making it the most expensive marble. expensive at the time. Currently, this porphyry has disappeared, and there are some similar ones with different values, the most expensive reaching €120,000.

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Cabinet of the Laocoon

After ten years of war, the Greeks decided to make a wooden horse to be able to enter inside it and thus deceive the Trojans in order to destroy, once and for all, the city of Troy. Laocoon, a Trojan priest of the god Apollo with the gift of premonition, warned his Trojan people of the possible trap of the Greeks with the wooden horse. None was able to believe Laocoön, and he was punished by the goddess Athena (patron saint of the Greeks) by sending two sea serpents that trapped him and his two sons, taking their lives. The sculptural group of Laocoön and his sons marked a before and after in the history of art. Its discovery dates back to the 16th century, in 1506, contemporaneously with the reunion of some rooms of Nero's domus Aurea, between the Esquiline hill and the Opium hill. Julius II, upon hearing the news, sent great masters like Michelangelo, who also presided over the excavation, to study it. It was later acquired by the Pope to be one of the first sculptures exhibited in the Belvedere Garden, in the so-called Antiquarium of Sculptures. He identified himself with the priest Laocoön and his sons, thanks to the descriptions of Pliny the Elder in his work Naturalis Historia. It was made in Pentelic marble, in a single block, by three authors from the Rhodes school: Agesander, Athenodoros and Polidoros. It is believed to be a Roman copy of a Greek bronze original, dating from the 17th century. II a. C. It was probably ordered to be carried out by the court of Tiberius in the 2nd century AD. c. The work is characterized by a strong dynamism through the creation of contrasts, it effectively represents the culminating moment of the event in which muscles, nerves and faces are contracted by effort. The authors found balance and serenity, being able to express the human body in extreme conditions of pain, suffering and terror. The right arm of Laocoön was found at the beginning of the 20th century by the archaeologist Ludwing Pollak (hence the saying ''Pollak's Arm'') in the workshop of a stonecutter and was immediately recognized as belonging to the sculptural group of Laocoön. In the time of Clement VII a marble arm was made for Laocoön, it was raised almost vertically, as had been interpreted before the original was found.

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The Orangery

L'Orangérie is one of the great examples of another characteristic of "French" gardens: perspective. The elements suddenly appear to the visitor as if by magic. 1055 exotic trees placed in boxes. Orange comes from orange, but there were not only these fruits, but also apple trees, palm trees and others. Below where we are standing is the greenhouse where the trees are preserved during the winter months. It must be understood that at that time having these citrus trees was a luxury product, which Luis personally showed to his guests. It was built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart between 1684 and 1688, replacing the one built by Louis Le Vau in 1663, even before work on the palace began. By retaining water and nutrients and using pruning techniques, French gardeners were able to make citrus trees bloom year-round, much to the delight of Louis XIV. Citrus fruits were taken as themes in sculpture, mosaics, embroidery, textiles, paintings, poems and songs throughout history and orange blossoms were appreciated as floral ornaments for weddings.

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Tears of Saint Peter

It is a painting that symbolizes betrayal, repentance and remorse. It tells the story of a disciple betraying his teacher and even more so, a friend betraying the deepest friends. For art appreciators, the Tears of Saint Peter is a symbol of all the elements of repentance, humility and remorse that define people as a whole. Painted in 1585 by Domenikos Theotokopoulos, a Greek artist who would affectionately become known as "El Greco" (the Greek). He began his early career at the age of twenty-six when he moved to Venice and then Rome, where he would come to blend his own styles with those of the Venetian Renaissance and concepts of Mannerism. These ideals would come to show paintings that were asymmetrical and unnaturally elegant. Moving to the Spanish town of Toldeo in 1577, El Greco became famous for a variety of notable works including: The Expolio (1577-79), the burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586-88), the view of Toledo ( 1596-1600) and the opening of the fifth seal (1608-1614). The painting is known as a defining image used by proponents of the Counter-Reformation movement to show the humanity of all saints, including that of Saint Peter. As a painting, El Greco created it for private viewings with the goal of creating a deep and personal bond between the follower and the image. The painting contains a number of characteristics that are defining and visible to viewers. The most important of these elements are the eyes, the windows to the soul. They express regret and deep sadness for their actions in denying and betraying Jesus during the passion. It shows him appealing directly to God and heaven for his actions. It also displays a number of key symbols that reflect not only Peter's role before Jesus but his subsequent position as God's representative on earth. To this end, the image displays a number of key symbols and characteristics that help identify who Saint Peter was and how he is represented within the Christian religion. The first symbol in this regard is the keys that we use on its left side. They symbolize the keys of the Holy Sea and indeed the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven.

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Medusa

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio created two versions of Medusa: one in 1596 and the other in 1597, representing the exact moment Perseus executed her. He plays with the concept by replacing Medusa's face with his own, as an indication of his immunity to her terrible gaze. Due to its strange and intricate design, the painting is said to complement Caravaggio's unique fascination with violence and realism. It was commissioned by the Italian diplomat Francesco Maria del Monte to be given to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and is now in the Uffizi Museum in Florence without a signature. The chemical composition of this paint is extremely complex. Caravaggio used a circular shield made of poplar wood as the base for this painting. The shield was covered in linen, onto which four different layers of paint, known as preparation layers, were added to help create the base of the painting. On top of the preparation layers, an additional layer was applied to make the background appear more reflective. On top of this reflective layer, another layer (the green background shown in the painting) was applied: this layer consists of a mixture of verdigris and yellow lead-tin paint. On top of this background layer, three more layers consisting of mixtures of drying oils, turpentine and putty with traces of beeswax were applied to form the paint. Finally, a few more coats were added to help preserve the paint. The level of gloom and realism is well portrayed in this painting, creating a three-dimensional appearance. Medusa's cheeks and jaw are elongated to complement the nature of the painting. Caravaggio's idea of using a convex shield as a canvas was to paint it from Perseus' point of view; In the case, Medusa's reflection appeared on his shield, just before killing her.

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Casa de Paquius Proculus

The House of Paquius Proculus is located on the south side of the Via dell'Abbondanza. It was excavated in 1911 and again between 1923 and 1926. It is a relatively small building, but has a large peristyle and some fine decorative details. The house derives its name from one of several electoral inscriptions posted on either side of the entrance. The house is also known as the House of Cuspius Pansa because of the graffiti found on the west side of the maw. The house has an atrium, a deck, a reasonably standard garden plan. The maw opens on the south side of the Via dell'Abbondanza. The maw wall decoration is quite simple, but its most striking feature is the fine mosaic pavement depicting a guard dog chained to a door. The atrium is slightly unusual in that it only has rooms on two sides, north and south. The walls are decorated in the fourth style with alternating panels of red and yellow on a black frieze. The panels contain small decorative elements including animals and still lifes. Much of the decoration in the upper area is missing, but it appears to have been fairly simple based on a white background. The simplicity of the east wall is divided by three-door niches. The peristyle has rooms on three sides. On the north side, three rooms follow the general decorative theme of the house by having a fourth-style decoration on a red background. The oecus is decorated with red panels framed with delicate borders above a lower light brown frieze. The upper area features square and rectangular panels containing stylized flowers.

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The Marroniers room

The Marroniers, or Horse Chestnut, room has a design that looks like a gallery of vegetation adorned with a fountain at each end. It replaced a grove designed by Le Nôtre in 1678: the gallery of Antiquities, where, since 1680, Louis polychrome pavement. Pools adorned the ends of this true open-air museum. In 1704, Jules Hardouin-Mansart removed the fountains and the islet on the site where two rows of chestnut trees were planted. This could be considered a gallery of antiquities, where the French could demonstrate that they could also imitate the great Roman sculptures of the time. At the time there were eight busts and two statues. It was a symbol of outdoor art.

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Passion Facade

It is located on Sardenya Street, facing west. It represents the passion and death of Jesus Christ. The first stone of this façade was laid in 1954, almost 30 years after Gaudí's death. Three more years would pass before the work really began to be carried out under the direction of his disciple, the architect Francesc de Paula Quintana. The sculptural work and the access doors are the work of the sculptor Josep Mª Subirachs. Formed by six inclined columns, they support a cornice that overhangs it. It gives access to the interior of the Temple through three doors located between the four bell towers. The set is a spectacular sculptural staging of the Passion and death of Jesus. Gaudí even commented on this façade: “I would like it to be scary and to achieve this I will not skimp on chiaroscuro, protruding and hollowed-out elements, in fact, I would be willing to break arches, cut columns... "In order to give an idea of how bloody the Sacrifice was." However, as he had not reached a sufficient level of detail, the sculptor Josep Mª Subirachs, with his very personal style, has been in charge of interpreting Gaudí's wishes. The façade contains 13 scenes and more than 100 sculptures spread over three levels, which follow the ascending sculpted story in the shape of an S, from left to right, where the key moments of the last days of the life of Jesus Christ occur chronologically. the cruelty and suffering of his last hours.

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The Great Perspective

Welcome to the gardens of the French kings. "French-style" gardens, or belonging to a type of landscaping called French Baroque. The following men will be the great artists of everything we will see in these gardens: - André Le Nôtre: main architect and landscape designer of the first period. - Louis Le Vau: architect - Charles LeBrun: painter - Jules Hardoiun-Mansart: architect in the second period. The "French-style" gardens will be a symbol of French rational thought. Nature itself submits to the power of man, to the power of the king. The best way to demonstrate this is by pointing out that we can subdue nature, we impose geometric shapes on them, we subdue them, we place our foot on them, we impose a form on them. They are gardens pruned, symmetrical and trimmed by the hand of man. Each area of the garden also has to hold a surprise for us, with its groves and fountains arranged in unique places that cannot be seen from here, but that will surprise us during our visit to the gardens. What we see today was the great domain of Versailles under Louis XIII where this place was a giant swamp. Enormous quantities of soil in wheelbarrows and trees were brought by cart from all the French provinces. During its 40 years of construction, nearly 36 thousand men worked clearing the place, of which it is estimated that about half would die. Versailles had no water, so finally the water was brought from nearby towns and stored here in ponds. The entire garden was designed around a theme, the solar theme, symbol of the king. Thus, the great perspective of Versailles was materialized in the gardens by the green carpet and the main axis of the Grand Canal, which are oriented from east to west, to show the path of this star. Surrounded by aligned ponds dedicated to Apollo, the god of the sun, it also forms the axis of symmetry around which the groves are aligned, making pleasant green spaces invisible from the corridors. On the other hand, this axis continues in the city, which is also separated into two symmetrical parts. The green carpet, also called royal road, is grass, bordered on each side by an entrance path and forming an inclined plane (which overlaps the horizon lines with those of the Grand Canal). It measures 335 meters long and 40 meters wide. The green carpet was already in the park of Louis XIII at the time. Andre Le Notre expanded it and decorated it with 12 statues and 12 vessels, many from the French Academy in Rome.

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Concierge

La Conciergerie is a historic monument located on the Île de la Cité, in the heart of Paris. Former residence of the kings of France, it is today known as a famous prison of the French Revolution. With its impressive Gothic architecture, the Conciergerie is a place steeped in history that attracts many tourists every year. When you visit the Conciergerie, you will immediately be struck by the grandeur of its architecture. The Gothic facade, with its imposing towers and pointed windows, is a magnificent example of medieval architecture. Inside, you'll discover vast vaulted rooms, spiral staircases and fascinating architectural details. The Hall of Men at Arms, the Hall of Guards and the Hall of Counts are among the most impressive spaces to explore. As you walk through the Conciergerie, you can also discover the famous dungeons where prisoners of the French Revolution were held. The prison housed many notable prisoners, including Marie Antoinette, the last queen of France. You can visit his cell, which has been reconstructed to give you a glimpse of the life of prisoners at the time. Exhibits and informative panels will help you better understand the history of the prison and the events that took place there. In addition to its fascinating history, the Conciergerie also offers a breathtaking view of the Seine and the Île de la Cité. You can walk along the quays and enjoy the beauty of the Parisian landscape. Additionally, the Conciergerie's proximity to other popular attractions, such as Notre-Dame Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle, makes it a must-see stop during your visit to Paris. To fully enjoy your visit to the Conciergerie, it is recommended that you take an audio guide or take part in a guided tour. This will allow you to learn more about the history of the monument and not miss the most interesting details. Also be sure to check opening hours and prices before your visit, as they may vary depending on the season. In conclusion, the Conciergerie is an essential place for history and architecture lovers. Its unique blend of medieval grandeur and testimony to the French Revolution makes for a captivating visit. Do not miss the opportunity to discover this emblematic monument during your stay in Paris.

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The Little Street.

The Alley is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer made in 1658, during the so-called golden century of Dutch painting. This painting represents a part of the daily life of the Dutch of the time, busy with their chores. Vermeer united the everyday and the eternal, achieving an intimacy between the environment and man. Here the artist meticulously captured the various materials: the worn bricks of the masonry, the shine of the leaded windows and the white plaster wall. The paint was applied thickly in one spot and more sparsely in another. In some places it is smooth, while in others it has a grainy texture. The composition is so exciting and balanced that the old brick walls and their cracks seem almost tangible.

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Nile Boats

The boats of the pharaohs. Papyrus boats, ships of oars and transport, sacred boats ... During the Pharaonic era, all kinds of boats sailed the Nile and even the high sea. Without the Nile, the sacred river, Egypt would only be a vast desert. In ancient times, the annual flooding of its waters guaranteed the livelihood of those who inhabited its shores and, at the same time, it served as a privileged means of communication throughout the thousands of kilometers of its course. Therefore, in the daily life of the Egyptians, the ships played a fundamental role, whether for the movement of people, the transport of goods or numerous religious ceremonies. Very few remains of these boats are preserved, probably because the wood from which they were made was a precious, scarce, and undoubtedly often reused to make coffins, but there are many representations that show us the different types of vessels and its evolution. Thus, some vessels of the Predynastic period show that then the rowing boats abounded, with a double cabin, and the hull followed a uniform curve from bow to stern. This feature of the great Egyptian ships serves to differentiate them from other supposedly Asian.

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Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore

It is the episcopal seat of the archdiocese of Florence, in addition to being one of the masterpieces of Gothic art and the first Italian Renaissance. It is one of the largest buildings in Christendom. It is 155 meters long and 107 meters from the highest part of the dome and is one of the most carefully constructed structures in Italy. It began to be built on top of the early Christian cathedral of Santa Reparata at the end of the 13th century, so that the city had a church in line with others that already existed. The dimensions of the church are enormous, it is 153 meters long and 130 meters wide. That the interior seems gloomy and gives the impression of an empty building has an explanation, and it is that it corresponds to the austerity of religious life. It should be noted that many of the church decorations have been moved to the Duomo Opera Museum. Arnolfo Di Cambio, architect and sculptor trained with Nicola Pisano, was commissioned to begin construction and when he died, the façade was halfway decorated. It should be noted that the author gave the Duomo large spaces, leaving aside the idea of Gothic art that prevailed at the time. A very characteristic element is the grandiose dome, the work of Brunelleschi, although it was originally made of wood, the work of Di Cambio. This model served as a guide for the different artists, but presented the project incomplete to ensure control over the construction. The excavations that have been carried out discovered runes of Roman houses, or ruins of the ancient cathedral of Santa Reparata. Furthermore, near the public entrance is Brunelleschi's tomb, as a sign of the affection and respect shown to him by the inhabitants of Florence.

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Lunch on the grass

Currently there are only two recovered fragments of this painting, which was painted by Claude Monet in 1865; but it was never completed. Originally the painting, done in oil on canvas, measured 4x6 meters. Initially it was a tribute to Manet's Lunch on the Grass, but it also became a criticism of the painting. It was finally abandoned in 1866, because he left it in pawn with his landlord, who rolled it up and left it in the basement. When Monet was able to recover his canvas in 1884, it was already moldy due to the passage of time and so Monet had to cut the canvas into three pieces, two of which are in the D'Orsay Museum and the third still does not appear until the date, more specifically the right side of the canvas. Monet did manage to make a much more realistic representation of the daily life of the time. It was very conservative in reflecting something that the viewer could identify with more and that also did not go against the good customs of those times. His inspiration came in the Fontainebleau forest, but the weather at that time and an injury he had in his leg at the time forced him to rest. When 1866 arrived, he realized he would have to abandon the project, due to the amount of debts that were accumulating.

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Sutton Hoo burial ship

Sutton Hoo is the name of the place located in Suffolk, United Kingdom where the remains of a 7th century funerary ship were found in 1939, as well as the various utensils exhibited in this room of the museum; gold coins, personal ornaments made of gold and silver, weapons, swords, helmets, a lyre, household items, cauldrons and remains of fabrics of all kinds. Although the body was not found, the analyzes carried out indicated traces of phosphate, so it eventually disappeared in the acidic soil. Objects found around where the body is supposed to have been have been identified as offerings, indicating that this was the burial ship of a king. Raedwald, king of the East Angles between 600 and 624, is the most likely candidate. Sutton Hoo has been of vital importance to historians of the Middle Ages as it provided information about that period in England; period that until the discovery was very little documented. It is one of the most important archaeological discoveries in the entire United Kingdom due to its age, size, rarity and historical importance.

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high choir

We reached the high choir, a raised platform, with a view of the main altar of the church. To the right is a magnificent Renaissance-style seat for the monks. It was designed by Diogo de Torralva and executed in 1550 by the master Diogo de Cácera. This work deserves to be admired in the sculpture details it presents. There are two sets of chairs here. Each has a removable seat on which is the "mercy" decorated with vases, young heads, warriors and fantastic animals. Initially, it was made up of 84 chairs, but the earthquake of 1755 dropped the central part of the balustrade that supported the choir, destroying 24 of the seats. The paintings on the back of the chair are from the 16th century. XVIII and represent ten of the twelve apostles. The canvases of Saint Peter and Saint Paul were lost in one of the renovations of the church. In the background, next to the door that now leads to a terrace, there are four more paintings: Saint Augustine, Triumph of Faith, Triumph of the Eucharist and Saint Jerome standing in a solemn attitude, dressed in a cardinal's red suit, respectively. hat. In front of the balcony, an image of the crucified Christ, made of wood and attributed to the Flemish sculptor Philippe de Vries. It was offered to the monastery by the infant D. Luís, son of D. Manuel, in 1551. This space was very important for the monks' prayers. Community prayer, also called "Divine Office", was the most significant religious task. It was divided into seven moments, that is, seven hours, the canonical hours, throughout the day. Thus, seven times a day, the monks entered the choir to pray, recite or sing. In the first part of this long prayer, the monks could sit in the chair chairs; In the second, they had to pray standing up. In this case, they were allowed to rely on "mercies."

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The Old Born Market

The Old Born Market exhibits a building of iron architecture, a current within Catalan modernism, which made use of this resistant material for a notable structure and a complicated roof of flat glazed tiles. In February 2002, during restoration works, even older remains of the Roman city and the La Ribera neighborhood appeared under the Old Market, destroyed and buried during the War of Succession to build the Citadel. The remains are preserved in excellent condition, the urban typology of that time is observed and it seems that all the buildings had been cut at the same level. Today these archaeological remains are a museum that can be visited as another tour of the city's history.

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Concierge Clock

The Conciergerie Clock is a magnificent clock located within the grounds of the Conciergerie, a former royal palace transformed into a prison in Paris. This iconic clock is a true masterpiece of watchmaking and a symbol of the city's history. The clock is located in the Salle des Gens d'Armes, a large vaulted room which once served as a reception hall for the kings of France. It hangs above the main entrance to the Conciergerie, offering stunning views as soon as you walk through the doors. The Conciergerie Clock was built in the 14th century and is one of the oldest clocks in Paris. It is composed of a gold-tone metal dial decorated with Roman numerals and floral motifs. The wrought iron hands indicate the hours, minutes and seconds with remarkable precision. What makes this clock so special is its intricate mechanism and chime. Every hour you can hear the clock bells ringing, creating a magical ambiance in the Conciergerie. Visitors are often amazed by the beauty and precision of this ancient clock. In addition to its time function, the Conciergerie Clock is also a historical symbol. It has survived through the centuries and witnessed many important events in the history of France. It has been the silent witness of kings, revolutions and popular uprisings. During your visit to the Conciergerie, be sure to take the time to admire this exceptional clock. It is a living testimony to the history of Paris and a must-see for lovers of watchmaking and architecture.

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Tang tomb

These 12 figures were buried in the tomb of the Tang general, Liu Tingxun, who died in 728 AD at the ripe old age of 72. At that time the Chinese believed that it was necessary to furnish the tombs with all the essential things to maintain status in the afterlife. The human and animal figures were created to serve and protect Liu Tingxun after death, as a kind of supernatural guardians to ward off evil spirits. The Tang Dynasty (AD 618-906) represents a golden era in Chinese history. Under the rule of the Tang, China became the richest and most powerful political unit in the world. Its success was based on the control of the towns along the Silk Road; China sent silk to the West and in return received luxury goods and animals such as horses. Western Europe, on the other hand, at the time these figures were made was a remote and underdeveloped territory; an unstable mosaic of small kingdoms and precarious urban communities. The Tang ruled a unified state that stretched from north to south from Korea to Vietnam, and to the west encompassed the entire Silk Road in Central Asia. This power and organization, together with the enormous cultural influence, are vividly reflected in the figures in Liu Tingxun's tomb.

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Church of San Marcellus al Corso

The church of San Marcello al Corso is a Catholic temple in Rome, dedicated to Pope Marcellus I. It is located on Via del Corso (formerly Via Lata), one of the most important streets in Rome that connects Piazza Venezia with Piazza del Popolo. It is the oldest church currently preserved on this street.1​ According to tradition, it stands on the same place where Pope Marcellus I was imprisoned. There are mentions of a place of worship since the year 418, when Boniface I was elected pope here. In 590 there are also documents that mention the church of San Marcello, although the oldest building of which remains are preserved is from the 8th century, from the church that Pope Hadrian I ordered to be built.

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Sant Felip Neri Square

Plaza San Felipe Neri, in Catalan Plaça Sant Felip Neri, is a square in Barcelona with an octagonal fountain in the center and surrounded by Renaissance-style houses, headquarters of former guilds of Boilermakers and Shoemakers that moved here from their facilities on the street. de la Bòria and calle de la Corribia, respectively. The square has the same name as the church that presides over it, in which serious machine gun impacts are observed. The narrow, labyrinthine streets of the Gothic Quarter lead to this unexpected place. The square, built on the old Monjuic cemetery, is witness to a terrible event during the Spanish Civil War, in which a fascist plane dropped a bomb that caused the death of forty-two children who were taking refuge in the basement of church. The holes in the church are evidence of this sad story, you can almost hear the sound of the bombs that fell from the sky one fateful January in 1938, the façade was the only piece left standing, everything else was destroyed and rebuilt later . Today, next to the church, the Sant Felip Neri school still survives. Now, children play in the shade of the acacia trees, unaware of this tragic past, in this square that marks the entrance to the Jewish quarter of Barcelona.

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The Birth of Venus - La Naissance de Vénus

Painting made with the oil painting technique and with an academic style, at the time its workmanship was considered almost perfect, if not perfect. Alexandre Cabanel painted The Birth of Venus in 1863, becoming one of the great successes of the Paris Salon that year and was even acquired by Napoleon III. The painting is clear proof of the taste for this type of painting, both for people in official positions, as well as the taste of the public at that time. It also showed the virtuosity that Cabanel had. In this painting the painter's taste for 19th century painting is mixed, as well as the influences of the Second Empire. For this painting, Cabanel portrayed Venus at birth, which was a very popular theme among several artists, although this theme also allowed them to explore themes such as eroticism without being controversial because with classical themes they did not face the repudiation of the people, although in the case of Cabanel, he did use mythology to be able to paint nudes. The work is based on the concept of mythological beauty, having Venus surrounded by cherubs, although she is not emerging from the shell as she had previously been portrayed and although in a certain way it could be considered erotic, it really is not like that, because You are seeing a figure that actually represents peace and love, in addition to giving the viewer the feeling of wanting to reflect something else using common themes.

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The Hanged Man's House, Auvers-sur-Oise

The Hanged Man's House, Auvers-sur-Oise, is an impressionist painting done in 1873 in oil on canvas by Paul Cézanne, when he was 33 years old and in this painting the town of Auvers-sur-Oise is represented. Its first presentation was in an impressionist exhibition in 1874 in which Cézanne exhibited three more paintings and it is also considered the painter's first masterpiece, Cézanne with this work becomes the union between impressionism and cubism. He is considered the creator of the bridge between Impressionism and Cubism. This painting reveals the influence of Camille Pissaro, with whom he worked on several occasions. Although it also shows us a much more personal side of Cézanne, as well as a change in style, leaving behind light colors, fragmented brushstrokes and more banal themes, bringing him much closer to impressionism and thus giving us much darker works. This is perhaps what is considered his most impressionistic work, since it is seen that the chosen theme is much more natural, luminous and in which one can barely see the sky, which is represented by a narrow strip. Cézanne uses impressionism in his own way since color possesses what one would call a greater and much more personal richness.

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The Calvary (Facade of the Passion)

The middle level represents Calvary. Here the story begins on the right. In the first scene, Simon of Cyrene appears helping Christ carry the cross when he falls fainting on the way to Calvary, while the group of the three Marys, the Virgin, Mary Magdalene and Mary of Cleopas, attend desolately. Next is the episode of Veronica, which shows the face of Jesus captured in the cloth with which he has just wiped his sweat. The figure of Veronica has no face, so as not to interfere with that of the Holy Face. Observe the figure of the evangelist located on the left. Subirachs pays another tribute to Gaudí here, its appearance is as it is, since he took as a model a well-known photo of the architect during the Corpus Christi celebration in 1924. This level closes with Longinus on horseback, the Roman general who speared Jesus.

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A grocery store

The Macellum consists of a tuff quadriporticus with a hall for worship in an elevated position on the east side, in line with the entrance. Copies of two marble statues, a woman and an armed man, are found in the niches of the side wall, together with the fragment of a larger statue, probably belonging to an emperor, Titus or Vespasian, indicating how this area was destined for the imperial cult. To its left is a room for meetings of a sacred board and to the right a large room with a masonry counter, perhaps for the sale of fish. There was a circular structure (tholos) in the center of the courtyard, which was also used for selling and cleaning fish; Shops are lined up along the south side. The walls of the porches were decorated with scenes of daily life, such as the sale of fish and birds, and mythological themes. The building was built between 130-120 BC. c.

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The Virgin adoring the host

In this painting by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, made in 1854 in oil on canvas, we can find why Ingres was one of the most recognized exponents of romanticism, although he is also considered neoclassical. Ingres always preferred his characters to be women so that he could show the inner beauty of the women he portrayed, in fact the nudes he made were exclusively of women. Made in the neo-classical style, Ingres considered himself a history painter, although at the end of his days it was his portraits and drawings that brought him fame. Ingres was one of the few artists who portrayed the Virgin Mary in adoration of the Eucharist, a subject that was not previously treated in the world of painting, rare considering how much religious art existed previously. Ingres always had an important relationship with religious painting and in this case we are looking at an intimate scene, which is counteracted by his paintings considered monumental that represented much larger and more magnificent scenes. The Virgin of Ingres takes us back to the times of Raphael, specifically one can see how the Madonnas of the Renaissance era, for which Raphael was well known, influenced him to make this type of art.

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House of Venus in the Shell

This house is located on Via dell'Abbondanza. Also known as the House of D. Lucrecia Satrii Valentes, it was still being restored when Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD. Excavated between 1933-35, it was damaged by bombing during World War II in 1943. It was re-excavated and restored in 1952. On the north side of the atrium, on either side of the entrance, are two cubicles that have lost most of their original decoration. A third cubicle opens from the southeast corner of the atrium. The room is decorated in the third style with white framed panels separated by fantastic architectural views above a lower dark red frieze. The central panel of the south wall contains a much faded mythological scene of Hermes and Dionysus. The side panels on the north wall contain floating figures, while on the east are two portrait medallions. In the northwest corner of the atrium is a door leading to adjoining workshops. Just south of this is the entrance to the triclinium. The triclinium has a vaulted roof and is decorated in the third style with architectural themes framing black panels above a lower black frieze. The panels contain floating figures, while just above the panels are small scenes and still lifes. The south side of the atrium opens directly onto the peristyle, which encloses the internal garden on three sides. The photographs above and right show the view from the atrium, looking south. In the photograph above, the rear wall of the peristyle, which bears the large frescoes that give the house its name, can be seen beyond the bushes. The fluted columns of the portico are of stuccoed brick, while the walls are decorated in the third style with large red and yellow panels containing small architectural scenes and still lifes on a lower black frieze.

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Autumn tree in rough air

Schiele's autumn trees are human allegories. It shows a bright, whitened tree trunk, of which, behind the background of grayish-white cloud formations, larger and smaller branches form the crown of a tree. The dark ridge of the hills isolates the sensitive cloudy sky from the ocher-colored land. The irregularly shaped branches symbolize the various living conditions. The main branches bend, shaken by the storm, thinner branches flutter in the wind, and others fall weakly. In addition to being a convincing depiction of a windblown day in early winter, Schiele also titled the image »Winter Tree« – achieving a precise analogy for life.

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The Church of Auvers-sur-Oise

After his stay in the south of France, in Arles and then in the psychiatric hospital of Saint-Rémy de Provence, Vincent van Gogh settled in Auvers-sur-Oise, a town near Paris. His brother Théo, worried about his health, makes him consult Dr. Gachet, also a painter, who agrees to take care of him. During the two months between his arrival in Auvers on May 21, 1890 and his death on July 29, the artist made about seventy paintings, that is, more than one a day, and numerous drawings. This painting is the only one that Vincent van Gogh dedicates to the church of Auvers. This church, built in the 13th century in the first Gothic style, surrounded by two Roman chapels, becomes under the artist's brush a flamboyant monument that seems about to dislocate due to the pressure exerted by the ground and the two paths that surround it. they enclose If we compare this painting with the Cathedrals of Claude Monet, painted shortly after, we can measure the distance that separates Van Gogh's approach from that of the Impressionists: unlike Monet, he does not seek to give the impression of the play of light on the monument. . Even when the church is recognized, rather than offering the viewer a faithful image of reality, the painting offers a form of "expression" of it. The plastic media used by Van Gogh announces the work of the Fauves and expressionist painters.

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From the passage of the lagoon Estigia

The passage of the Styx or Charon crossing the Styx is perhaps the most famous work of the Flemish painter Joachim Patinir. It was made around the year 1520. It is a painting on panel 64 cm high and 103 cm wide. This painting represents the classical theme related by Virgil in his Aeneid and Dante in the Inferno in the center of the painting within the Christian traditions of the Last Judgment and the Ars moriendi. The largest figure on the boat is Charon, who "passes the souls of the dead through the gates of Hades." The passenger in the boat, too small to distinguish their expressions, is a human soul deciding between Heaven, to its right, or Hell, to its left. The Styx divides the painting in the center. It is one of the four rivers of the underworld that passes through the deepest part of hell. On the left side of the painting is the fountain of Paradise, the spring from which the river Lethe rises through Heaven: "the water of Lethe has the power to make one forget the past and grants eternal youth" (Battistini) . On the right side of the composition is Patinir's vision of Hell, which is largely due to the influences of Hieronymus Hieronymus. He adapts the description of Hades, in which, "according to the Greek writer Pausanias, one of the gates was located at the southern end of the Peloponnese, in a cove still visible at Cape Matapan" (Battistini). In front of the doors is Cerberus, a three-headed dog, who guards the entrance of the door and scares away all potential souls that enter Hades. The soul of the boat in the end chooses its destiny by looking towards Hell and ignoring the angel on the bank of the river in Paradise who beckons it to approach the most difficult path that leads to Heaven.

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The Night Watch

Masterpiece of universal painting made by Rembrandt in 1642, today it is the most famous painting in the Rijksmuseum. Known as 'The Night Watch', this painting is actually titled 'the military company of District II under the command of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq' and is a group portrait of a division of the civic guard. Rembrandt depicted the militia group in an unusual and different way. Here, instead of being in an orderly row or sitting at their annual banquet as they were normally portrayed, they appear getting ready to go out to tour the city on their mission as guardians of order. Three main characters can be distinguished. The first is Captain Banning Cocq, the central figure who establishes the axes of the painting. With his hand he indicates an order to his lieutenant and extends it to the viewer, including him in the scene. The second is Lieutenant van Ruytenburgh, who is ordered to prepare the company for training. The lieutenant was short, and so that he would not be too diminished, Captain Rembrandt highlighted him with a yellow tone on his uniform, which he illuminated with a ray of light. Finally, the girl appears, a key figure in the painting as she is the only female character and serves as a focus of light. The girl is not in darkness and the shadows do not touch her. It seems like a specter that has little to do with the rest of the ensemble, and it is because of this unusual quality that many critics believe that it is a portrait of Saskia, the painter's first wife, who died prematurely that same year. The origin of the title 'The Night Watch' arises from an error in its interpretation, since when the painting became popular in the 19th century, it was already so deteriorated and darkened by rust and dirt that its figures were almost indistinguishable, and it seemed a night scene However, the action takes place during the day, inside a darkened area, where a powerful ray of light reaches and intensely illuminates the characters involved in the composition. The lighting is the main protagonist of this painting, as it recreates a magical atmosphere of golden shadows and blinding lights.

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Maison Rose

Utrillo

La Maison Rose, nestled in the heart of Montmartre in Paris, is a colorful gem that evokes the bohemian and artistic essence of the neighborhood. This iconic building, painted in vibrant shades of pink and green, has attracted the attention of visitors and artists for over a century. La Maison Rose owes its name to its former owner, Germaine Pichot, who once ran a lively café in this building. It has hosted renowned artists such as Pablo Picasso and Maurice Utrillo, who came to meet in this picturesque place to discuss, create and be inspired by the unique atmosphere of Montmartre. Today, the Maison Rose is a place where you can stop for a meal or simply to have a drink and enjoy the bohemian atmosphere that reigns in the neighborhood. Its charming exterior, with colorful shutters and flowers adorning the windowsills, invites visitors to linger and relax. The interior of La Maison Rose is warm and welcoming, with decor reminiscent of a time when art and culture were at the heart of Montmartre. The walls are adorned with photographs and paintings that bear witness to the rich history of this emblematic place. La Maison Rose is also surrounded by a picturesque setting, with cobbled lanes, spiral staircases and sweeping views of the city. You can stroll around the area, discover artists' studios and enjoy the creative energy that pervades Montmartre. Whether for a lunch break, a coffee on the terrace or simply to soak up the unique atmosphere of Montmartre, the Maison Rose is an essential stop. It embodies the history, art and charm of this mythical district, while adding a touch of color and conviviality to the visitor experience.

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City Hall and Palau de la Generalitat

The headquarters of Barcelona City Council and the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya are located in Plaza Sant Jaume, in the Ciutat Vella district, in Barcelona. It is bounded by calle del Bisbe, calle de Sant Sever and calle de Sant Honorat. The Palau or palace, the seat of the government, has a building of medieval origin, framed by a Renaissance facade and Saint George mounted on his steed. The town hall exhibits neoclassical architecture. In the ancient Roman city of Barcelona, ​​Plaça Sant Jaume was the site of the Forum, the meeting place and stage for political debate. You could say that the square continues to fulfill the same role today, as it is flanked by the two political powers of Barcelona: the Barcelona City Council and the seat of the Catalan government, the Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya. Historically speaking, the city's first form of government was the Consell de Cent, or Council of One Hundred, which met in the Great Hall, the Saló de Cent, from 1373 until its dissolution in 1714. The building of the city. The hall began in 1369, while the Palace was acquired in 1400 by the General Council of Catalonia. The current structure actually predates its use as a government headquarters and had to adapt to its new functions with construction and renovations from the early 15th century to the mid-17th century. It has Gothic elements, such as its central patio with a large staircase and galleries that surround it. The original façade of the building, facing Calle del Bisbe, was also built in an extravagant Gothic style, as was the Sant Jordi chapel. Its most recent remodeling in 1928 gave it its current appearance. The seat of the palace belonged to the Catalan Jewish poet Moixé Natán until the dismissal of the Jews in 1391. In both buildings, the oldest Gothic facades can be seen and, if it is a Christmas season, a Nativity scene or manger is displayed in the plaza, commissioned from some contemporary plastic artist. The Palau de la Generalitat is one of the most valued symbols of Catalonia, among other reasons because it has managed to survive so many historical and political disasters. Furthermore, it has come to represent, together with the Palau del Parlament, a bastion of democracy in Catalonia.

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Flagellation Column

It is located in front of the central door and is the first sculpture that was placed on this façade in 1987. From here, sculptures were installed year after year. It replaces the cross initially planned by Gaudí, it is made of marble, is 5 meters high and is located on three steps, as many as days elapsed until the resurrection. The column is divided into 4 blocks, which symbolize the four parts of the cross. Other details to highlight are: the knot, symbol of the torture suffered by Jesus; the fossil in the shape of a palm tree (found in the marble block according to Subirachs), symbol of martyrdom; and the reed next to the feet recalls the reed that the soldiers gave to Jesus instead of the royal scepter, as a symbol of the scorn suffered.

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The artist's garden in Giverny

Monet was absolutely in love with his garden. In this typical impressionist scene you can see the artist's garden, with rows of flowers designed by himself and which were cared for by up to 7 gardeners. In the background you can see the house that he shared with his second wife Alice, his six children and the painter's two. It is here where Monet treasured his collection of Japanese prints, which inspired him so much. As seen in the painting, Monet's intention was for the construction to merge with the garden, and the three entrances it has help to quickly access it; the most important part of the house. It is worth visiting Giverny on the outskirts of Paris to see that Monet does not exaggerate the beauty of his garden.

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The Harvesters

Jean-François Millet. 1857. Jean-François Millet was not only the painter of the peasant class, but he was one too. He grew up working in the fields in a humble family in the Normandy area. His training in art began there with a local painter and then traveled to Paris. He was accused of being a socialist due to his great interest in representing rural life and the working class. This painting was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1857 and was not received well, its contents were even called “dangerous” for the audience. In the Harvesters, Millet shows us the face of peasant poverty. In this painting the women we see were authorized to collect the harvest grains that were forgotten. In the back we see the foreman riding a horse supervising his workers. We can notice the contrast between what the gleaners gather and the abundance of production for their owner. The women have their eyes glued to the ground and bend down constantly and arduously to collect the leftover grains. The painter is kind to his viewers and shows us this scene with a soft brushstroke that sweetens reality. Vincent Van Gogh was a great admirer of Millet, and made reinterpretations of his paintings, since like his teacher, he aspired to represent the working class in a real and dignified way.

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Adoration of the Christ child

Adoration of the Christ Child is an oil on canvas painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Correggio, dating from around 1526. The work was donated by Francesco I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, to Cosimo II de' Medici of Tuscany in 1617. The Medici exhibited it in the Uffizi Tribune, where it remained until 1634. However, the original commission for the painting is unknown, although some identify it with what was mentioned by the late biographer of Renaissance art Giorgio Vasari and that Luca Pallavicino had brought to Reggio Emilia from Genoa. The dating of the work is based on stylistic elements: the dates of 1524-1526 derive from similarities with the Deposition and Martyrdom of the Four Saints. Copies of the painting were executed by Johan Zoffany and Giovan Battista Stefaneschi.

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Kramau on the Vltava

Český Krumlov, one of the most beautiful Renaissance towns in Europe and an exceptional architectural gem, was a great inspiration for Schiele. The beauty and location of the city in the middle of the bohemian landscape have always attracted artists and writers. Throughout his life, Schiele was also filled with enthusiasm for his mother's birthplace and hometown. He already knew the city from childhood visits to relatives and also spent his holidays during his time at the Academy in Krumau. He drew one of his youthful works in 1906 from a local motif: "The Budweiser Gate in Krumlov." This work is Schiele's first known landscape.

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Citadel Park

The Citadel Park, Parc de la Ciutadella, is a rectangular park that ends the route from the Gothic Quarter, connected by the Borne or the Riviera. It is the second largest urban park in the City, and was the venue for the Barcelona Universal Exhibition. It had a museum and a nursery, which are currently undergoing maintenance works. The somewhat neglected appearance of the park gives it a quiet appearance, with remains of magnificence due to the statues, fountains and engravings of animals in various locations. It was a design testing center for architects like Gaudí and Montaner during their studies, as their teacher, in charge of the design of the park, encouraged his students to join the project, in this way the old marine biology museum designed by Montaner can be seen. , which hopes to be recovered by the city council.

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Magic box

A magic square is made up of a series of numbers arranged within a grid in such a way that any row, column or diagonal always adds up to the same amount. This quantity represents what is known as the magic constant. The first magical paintings of which there is reference have their origin in ancient China, in the third millennium BC, combinations of this type are also known in ancient cultures of India, Egypt, the Arab world and Greece. Traditionally astrological and divine properties have been attributed to this type of squares. Around the 14th century they were introduced by the Arabs in the West, attracting the attention of great mathematicians such as Pascal, Leibnitz... who dedicated various works to them, despite the fact that no specific practical use is known. They are normally created by placing integers and consecutive numbers until the table is complete. That is, in a 3 x 3 square you would find the numbers from 1 to 9, and in a 4 x 4 square the numbers from 1 to 16. With these initial rules, in a 4 x 4 square, whose sum of all numbers from 1 to 16 is 136, its magic constant would be 136/4, that is, 34. However, Subirachs does not meet these basic conditions for its magic square. Subirachs took the magic square that Dürer represented in his engraving Melancholy I, and retouched it, repeating the figures 14 and 10 and eliminating 12 and 16, in order to obtain a constant that would give 33 as a result, the age at which it is supposed Jesus Christ was executed. The number 3 is also important in the Christian world, as it is a symbol of the Trinity.

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The duque and duquesa of Urbino Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza

One of the most famous portraits of the Italian Renaissance, the diptych features the Duke of Urbino, Federico da Montefeltro (1422-1482) and his wife Battista Sforza (1446-1472). In the 14th century tradition, inspired by the design of ancient coins, the two figures are shown in profile, an angle that guarantees a good likeness and a faithful representation of the facial details without allowing their feelings to manifest: in fact, the Duke. and the Duchess of Urbino is not affected by confusion and emotions. The couple face each other and the spatial element is suggested by the light and continuity of the undulating landscape in the background, representing the Marche area over which the Duke and Duchess ruled. The chromatic contrast between the bronze skin tones used by Federico and the pale tones of Battista Sforza is striking; The duchess's pale pallor not only respects the aesthetic conventions that were fashionable during the Renaissance, but could also allude to her premature death in 1472. On the back of the panels, the Duke and Duchess are presented carried triumphantly in chariots ancient, accompanied by Christian virtues; The Latin inscriptions pay tribute to the couple's moral values. The presence of the images on the reverse suggests that the two paintings, now set in a modern frame, would once have been part of a diptych. One of Piero della Francesca's most famous works, the double portrait is representative of the relationship between the painter and the Duke and Duchess of Montefeltro; Piero was a frequent guest at his court, finding himself in a cultured and refined environment that would soon become one of the most important cultural and artistic hearts of Italy. The master painter combines the strict approach to perspective learned during his Florentine education with the lenticular representation most characteristic of Flemish painting, achieving extraordinary results and unmatched originality.

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Cloisonné jar with dragons

On the body of this container you can see a vigorous five-clawed dragon with its mouth open, chasing a pearl among the clouds. The lid is also decorated with a similar dragon in the clouds, and the base is surrounded by a set of laces. Made using the cloisonnée enamel technique, which was perfected in China during the 15th century, inlays of stone, glass and other materials were used to achieve the finish. It is believed that the container was made between the years 1400 and 1450, under the rule of the Ming dynasty, a period that forever transformed the country. During those years, Beijing was established as the capital city, and the borders of China as we know them today were established. Bureaucrats replaced military leaders in hierarchy, the role of the emperor changed from autocrat to icon, and the decision was made to centralize power instead of delegating. Vessels such as these were considered appropriate for imperial use, and many excellent pieces were made for palaces and temples. Some of the vessel shapes were taken from ancient Chinese bronzes. Other shapes, and some of the motifs, resemble contemporary porcelains.

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Galapagos Fountain or Isabella II Fountain

The Galapagos Fountain was created to honor the birth of Elizabeth II, and is also one of the most notable artistic works in the park. Built in 1832 by José de Mariategui, it consists of three different levels decorated with aquatic plants and equipped with water jets that come out of the turtles and Galapagos galaxies. Four small angels, with dolphins and a snail crown the set and adorn the upper part of the fountain. The structure has a symbolic meaning that everyone sought to emphasize the good wish on the occasion of the queen's birth, so there are allegories of long life, fertility and the defense of traditional values such as wisdom and righteousness.

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Museo Thyssen

It is a gallery of old and modern masters. Its existence is due to the lease agreement (1988) and the subsequent acquisition, by the Spanish Government (1993), of the most valuable core of the private collection gathered over seven decades by the Thyssen-Bornemisza family. This artistic fund provided numerous examples of foreign painters absent from Spanish museums, from the Gothic of the 14th and 15th centuries (Duccio, Jan van Eyck) to the pop art and figurative painting of the 1980s (Lucian Freud, Richard Estes). , so it came to complement the repertoire exhibited in the two main state centers, the Prado Museum and the Reina Sofía. The opening of the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in 1992 gave rise, by joining these two museums, to the so-called Art Triangle on Paseo del Prado, a museum area in Madrid that concentrates the most important pictorial collection in Spain. Around 1805, this 18th century building was expanded and renovated in a neoclassical style by Antonio López Aguado, commissioned by María Manuela Pignatelli y Gonzaga, widow of the 11th Duke of Villahermosa, Juan Pablo de Aragón-Azlor. Decades later it was one of the most prestigious mansions in the city. In 1823 it served as the residence of the Duke of Angoulême, then in command of the One Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis, and years later it gained notoriety for its festivals and cultural evenings: in 1844 it hosted two piano recitals by Franz Liszt, and was the venue for a Artistic and Literary Lyceum in the decade 1846-56. The museum was inaugurated on October 8, 1992, with the presence of the kings, and just eight months later (June 1993) the bulk of the collection became state property through a complex purchase and sale agreement. In 2004 the museum was expanded to house the most valuable core of the Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, through the addition of two adjacent buildings previously belonging to the Goyeneche family; The first of them was ordered to be built by the Count of Guaqui and the second by the Duchess of Goyeneche. These buildings were renovated by the BOPBAA studio (Josep Bohigas, Francesc Pla and Iñaki Baquero), and are connected by an angle to the Villahermosa Palace.

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Lower floor (west gallery)

The first floor corresponds to the most typical image of the "Manueline" style, so called because it was developed in the time of King D. Manuel. The originality of this style, which is a variation of late Gothic, consists mainly in the exuberance and theme of the decoration: a great abundance of ornaments, combining elements of nature and medieval images of fantastic animals with religious symbols and monarchy. Thus, we observe in the decoration of the arches the vegetal themes combined with fantastic animals. On the pillars there are religious and royal symbols. The vaulted ceiling presents decorations with the most characteristic motifs of Manueline art: the Cross of the Order of Christ, the Armillary Sphere and the Portuguese Shield. The Cross of the Order of Christ is the cross with the four symmetrical stems and triangular points, which is derived from the Cross of the Order of the Templars. Also called the Portuguese Cross, it has been used repeatedly as a national symbol, for example on Portuguese sails and caravels. Even today it is present on the insignia of the Portuguese Air Force and Navy. The armillary sphere is the globe-shaped navigation instrument and was the king's motto. D. Manuel, conferred by his predecessor, his cousin and his brother-in-law, King Juan II. The armillary sphere has become a Manueline symbol of maritime, political and economic power associated with navigation and is still present on the Portuguese flag. D. Manuel I was acclaimed king in 1495, after the death of all six suitors who would have priority for him. Although he was not destined to be king, he still turned out to be a successor. The Portuguese navigations initiated and prepared for a long time by their predecessors continued with great success. During his reign, Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India (1498), Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil (1500), Francisco de Almeida became the first viceroy of India (1505) and Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque gained control of The trade routes of the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf conquered important places such as Malacca, Goa and Hormuz from Portugal. Also in his reign voyages were made to the west, having reached Greenland and Terra Nova.

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Café de deux Moulins

Jean-Pierre Jeunet

The Café des Deux Moulins, located in the Montmartre district of Paris, is a charming café full of charm and history. Famous for having been the setting of the film "The Fabulous Destiny of Amélie Poulain", it attracts cinema lovers and enthusiasts of this emblematic work. As soon as you walk through the door of the Café des Deux Moulins, you are transported into the enchanting world of the film. The interior is warm and welcoming, with warm-toned walls, nostalgic movie posters and decorative elements reminiscent of the bohemian atmosphere of Montmartre. The friendly atmosphere of the café creates a relaxed atmosphere, ideal for having a coffee or enjoying a light meal. Wooden tables and comfortable chairs invite you to relax, while the friendly and attentive staff add a touch of conviviality to the experience. The menu offers a selection of tasty dishes, ranging from classic French cuisine to traditional coffee specialties. You can enjoy a rich and aromatic coffee accompanied by a delicious pastry, or opt for a light meal including fresh salads and homemade quiches. Fresh and quality products are there, for the greatest pleasure of the taste buds. The Café des Deux Moulins is also a great place for movie buffs. You can make yourself comfortable and enjoy screenings of cult films or special screenings dedicated to the work of Amélie Poulain. In addition to its unique atmosphere, the café enjoys a privileged location in the Montmartre district. After your visit, you can stroll through the picturesque streets, explore the famous Basilica of the Sacred Heart or get lost in the charming alleys of this artistic district. Whether you are an unconditional fan of the film or simply looking for an authentic Parisian café, the Café des Deux Moulins offers you a pleasant experience, between tradition, cinema and the sweetness of life.

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King's Square

Plaça del Rey or Plaza del Rey is a precinct within the Gothic Quarter of Barcelona, surrounded by Gothic and Renaissance buildings. It is accessed via Baixada de Santa Clara and Veguer streets. It is a monumental square which is accessed through a corner and inside the rectangular complex, you can see the Tinell on which stands the Mirador del Rey Martin tower, ordered to be built by King Pedro el Ceremonioso between the years 1359 and 1362, considered the tallest in its time, also the chapel of Santa Ágata from the year 1302, the work of King Jaime II of Aragon and his wife Blanca of Naples, and the Palacio de Lloctinent from the year 1549, commissioned to be built by King Carlos I. Formerly, the current square was part of the royal palace, where the kings of Aragon and counts of Barcelona resided. Throughout history its uses have been diverse, for several centuries it was a market open to the people and during the reign of Juan I the first Bullfight of the citadel was held there. It is also known as the place where Christopher Columbus was received after his first voyage. Thus, on the stairs at the back to the right, the Catholic Monarchs waited for the navigator to give an account of his expedition. In the same year of Columbus' voyage, King Ferdinand II had suffered a death attack on those same stairs. By then the square did not have the same appearance as it does today, it has been renovated on several occasions, discovering ruins of the Roman city in the basement, which is why since 1943 it has been the headquarters of the Museum of History of the City of Barcelona.

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Saint Michel Fountain

The Fontaine Saint-Michel is a monumental fountain located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, on Place Saint-Michel. It is considered one of the most iconic fountains in the city and is a must-see for tourists. The fountain was built between 1858 and 1860 by the architect Gabriel Davioud in the neo-Renaissance style. It is made up of several architectural elements, including a large central column surmounted by a statue of the Archangel Saint Michael slaying the dragon. The gilded bronze statue is almost 5 meters high and is the work of sculptor Francisque Duret. The fountain is surrounded by four groups of sculptures representing different mythological characters. To the east, there is a representation of Prudence and Force, while to the west are Justice and Religion. These sculptures add an artistic and symbolic dimension to the fountain. The Fontaine Saint-Michel is also known for its circular pool and its water jets. Visitors can sit on the steps surrounding the pool and enjoy the view of the fountain. It is a popular place to relax and cool off on hot summer days. In addition to its architectural beauty, the fountain also has historical significance. It marks the location of the ancient Saint-Michel Gate, which was once one of the main entrances to the city. Today, the fountain is a symbol of the history and culture of Paris. To fully enjoy your visit to the Fontaine Saint-Michel, it is recommended to come early in the morning or at the end of the day to avoid the crowds. Don't forget to admire the details of the carvings and take time to sit and relax by the pool. The fountain is also well lit at night, making it a great place for a romantic stroll. Tip: Be sure to visit the Shakespeare and Company bookstore, located near the fountain. It is one of the most famous bookstores in Paris and a real paradise for book lovers.

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Madonna and child

Stroganoff Madonna (c.1300), is a masterpiece of religious art from the Trecento Sienese School of Painting. This painting is a small devotional image, painted in tempera and gilded on a wooden panel. It is one of the highlights of the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. This small panel is also known as the Stroganoff Madonna and the Stoclet Madonna. It represents the Madonna cradling the baby Jesus in her arms, and points to him as the path to Salvation; dressed as an ancient philosopher, he holds a scroll. This masterpiece created by the genius Duccio di Buoninsegna (c.1255-1319), exemplifies the progressive yet traditional style of painting that flourished in Siena, during the Proto-Renaissance period (1290-1400), at the same time as Cimabue ( c .1240-1302) and Giotto (1270-1337) were developing a more naturalistic style in Assisi, Padua and Florence. A precursor of the International Gothic style, the image is an important milestone in the transition from medieval to Renaissance imagery and anticipates the works of artists such as Simone Martini (1284-1344), Fra Filippo Lippi (1406-69) and, ultimately , Giovanni. Bellini (1435-1516). Duccio di Buoninsegna, (born 13th century, Siena, Republic of Siena, died 1319, Siena), one of the greatest Italian painters of the Middle Ages and founder of the Sienese school. The Sienese School of Painting flourished in Siena between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivaled Florence, although it was more conservative, leaning toward the decorative beauty and graceful elegance of late Gothic art. Duccio di Buoninsegna was the most influential Sienese artist. In Duccio's art, the formality of the Italo-Byzantine tradition, reinforced by a clearer understanding of its evolution from classical roots, merges with the new spirituality of the Gothic style. The largest of all his works is the Maestà (1311), the altarpiece in the cathedral of Siena. This painting was acquired by the Metropolitan Museum in 2004 for an undisclosed sum. There are some reports that it cost more than US$45 million.

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The Holy Thron Reliquary

The crown of thorns, worn by Jesus during his crucifixion, is one of the great relics of medieval Christianity. It was purchased by the King of France, Louis IX, in 1239 AD for the price of 135,000 pounds, almost half of France's annual expenditure. Jean duc de Berry (1340-1416) was in charge of making this reliquary to house only one of the thorns, mounted on the large sapphire that can be seen in the center. A dramatic scene of the Last Judgment surrounds the relic, with the Virgin Mary (left), Saint John the Baptist (right) and Christ (center). Around the exterior are figures of the twelve apostles with God the Father at the top. At the bottom, four angels blow trumpets as the dead emerge from their graves. Behind the figure of God there is a golden relief of the Holy Face on the cloth of Saint Veronica. In the context of faith, what the reliquary of thorns shows is incredibly valuable and emotional: something that in addition to having been touched by Christ, was also involved in his torture. Christian relics were usually part of the physical remains of a saint, although they could also be associated with objects or clothing. Medieval worshipers would view relics as a means of approaching a saint or Christ himself. Relics were also associated with miraculous healing powers. Pilgrims traveled hundreds of miles to visit important relics in shrines, such as Jerusalem or Canterbury. The trade in sacred relics was big business in medieval Europe and kings amassed large collections and even went to war to obtain them.

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Forum

The Civil Forum is the core of the city's daily life and is the focal point of all the main public buildings for the city's administration and justice, for business management, for commercial activities such as markets, as well as the main places of citizen worship. . The Forum Square originally looked like a simple open area with an overall regular shape, made of clay and its western side opened to the Sanctuary of Apollo, while the eastern side had a row of shops. The Forum was significantly modified between the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. C. when the shape of the square was regularized, surrounded by porticos and the bottom paved with tuff slabs. The axis of the square became the façade of the Temple of Jupiter, aligned with Mount Vesuvius. At the beginning of the imperial era, the Forum was repaved with travertine slabs, some of which are no longer in their original location and have a groove to accommodate bronze letters that belonged to a large inscription. Excavations that began at the request of Maria Carolina Bonaparte immediately indicated that the area had been explored and stripped of its decorations in ancient times.

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Via Layetana

Via Leyetana is a street that connects the Ensanche district of Barcelona with the city's port. After getting lost in the narrow streets of the Gothic Quarter, it is much busier. In the background you can see some masts of the port's boats. The street was originally designed by Ildefonso Cerdá. And later in 1899 the project was resumed, when the section from the Plaza del Ángel to the port was designed by the modernist architect Doménech I Montaner. During the Second World War it was called Via Durruti in honor of an anarchist who died at the front. Thousands of buildings were destroyed for the construction of the Via Layetana, but one of them was saved, transferring its existence stone by stone to the Plaza del Rey in the Gothic. In addition, the demolition of the buildings revealed the remains of the old Roman wall and Gothic buildings that surround the cathedral.

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Casa de Octavio Quartio

The house, which looks like a "miniature version" of the large aristocratic villas scattered in the countryside outside the city, is a type of housing used by the Pompeian elite just before the eruption. The entrance area partly retains the original design with a traditional atrium; while the garden extends into two areas located at different heights and are characterized by two artificial channels (euripi) perpendicular to each other, animated by waterfalls and fountains. The references to Egypt and the goddess Isis found in the wall decorations, in the various marble statues and also in the garden architecture are particularly interesting. Two rooms face either end of the upper euripus: a small room in the west that appears to be a sanctuary dedicated to the goddess Isis; a double bed in the east for outdoor dining (biclinio) and a niche that acts as a cave decorated with frescoes with mythological themes. The artist is a certain Lucius who placed his own signature. The owner, as evidenced by a seal, was Decimus Octavius Quartio, a member of the board of Augusta, civilians dedicated to the cult of the emperors. It is also known as House of Loreio Tiburtino.

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House wall in the river

The bodily distortions, explicit eroticism, and angst that made Egon Schiele's works unpopular during his lifetime are the same characteristics that make them so fascinating today. Schiele (1890 – 1918) was an exceptionally prolific Austrian Expressionist who was a protégé of Gustav Klimt, and whose formidable talents fully matured when he was a teenager. He created emotionally charged self-portraits and allegories, but was best known for his drawings of naked or semi-nude women, portraying them in clumsily contorted poses to convey anguish. Arrested for immorality and seduction, he created numerous watercolors and drawings during his two-week imprisonment. Dying prematurely from the Spanish flu, Schiele left a legacy of nearly 3,500 compelling works of art.

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Le Bateau Lavoir

Le Bateau-Lavoir, located in Montmartre, Paris, is an emblematic place that embodies the artistic and bohemian spirit of the district. This historic building, formerly an artists' studio, has become the symbol of the flourishing artistic life that marked Montmartre at the beginning of the 20th century. The Bateau-Lavoir owes its name to its wooden structure resembling a boat, which was once used as a collective laundry for the inhabitants of the district. However, it was the artists who transformed this humble building into a hotbed of creativity and expression. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Bateau-Lavoir was the meeting place of many revolutionary artists, such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Max Jacob and many others. These innovative talents gathered in the workshops of the Bateau-Lavoir to exchange ideas, experiment with new artistic forms and push the limits of art. Today, although the original building was destroyed by fire in 1970, the Bateau-Lavoir remains a symbol of inspiration and creativity. A reproduction has been built to preserve the spirit of the place, offering visitors a glimpse of the bubbling atmosphere that reigned at the time. The Bateau-Lavoir is also surrounded by a vibrant artistic atmosphere. The cobbled streets and stairs of Montmartre invite you to discover many artists' studios and art galleries. The picturesque beauty of the Montmartre hill, with its panoramic views of the city, adds a touch of magic to the whole. To visit the Bateau-Lavoir is to immerse yourself in the history of art and connect with the spirit of the revolutionary artists who forged Montmartre. It is an opportunity to feel the inspiration that still floats in the air, to discover emerging talents and to understand the importance of this place in the evolution of modern art. Whether you are an art lover, a history buff or simply curious to experience the unique atmosphere of Montmartre, the Bateau-Lavoir is a must-see place to explore. It's a tribute to the creativity, audacity and bohemian spirit that shaped the neighborhood, and an invitation to dive into the world of the artists who called this place their home.

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Temple of Jupiter or Capitol

The Temple of Jupiter, or Capitoline, dominates the entire Forum of Pompeii and determines its orientation: it extends south from the north side, occupying a considerable part of the square. It is a professional-style hexastyle temple built on a high podium, according to the Etruscan-Italic architectural tradition renewed by Hellenism. In fact, a high tufa staircase, filled with a large platform and flanked by two brick pedestals for statues, leads to the deep pronaos. This is marked by six columns of Corinthian-Italic tufa on the front, by three columns and an anta on each of the long sides. On the other hand, two rows of Ionic columns divide the interior of the cell, which contains, at the end, what is commonly considered the tripartite pedestal for the statues of worship. A band of black and white opus tessellatum, surrounding a central opus scutulatum emblem, remains within the cell, while the pavement of the pronaos consists of travertine slabs. The interior walls are covered by second style paintings, the exterior of the cell has a marble stucco coating, arranged in large panels typical of resting style wall decoration, just like the podium and columns mentioned above . The temple was discovered in the summer of 1816 during excavations at the Arch of Drusus, first the podium, then the elements of the pronaos came to light. The monument was recognized immediately. The dating of the temple acquired primary importance in the late 19th century: determining the time of its construction and assigning it certain architectural and ethical/cultural traditions would have been of primary importance in understanding the history of Pompeii itself. . The main questions to be resolved were: whether the building was Roman or pre-Roman, and what were the religious and architectural precepts that influenced its construction. The Roman temple being a fairly stable and commonly known type of construction, the hypothetical reconstructions of the temple of Jupiter made by scholars from time to time are all very similar, except for the architectural and sculptural decoration. Almost nothing remains of the upper part of the temple: only one of the Corinthian capitals of the Pronaos was already recovered in 1831.

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Crypt

The crypt, the heart of the Sagrada Família, Gaudí's last resting place. Let's go down to the crypt. It is an underground floor located under the apse, the first space that was opened to worship and where Gaudí's mortal remains rest. Its original design is by the temple's main architect, Francisco de Paula del Villar, whom Gaudí replaced. Upon taking charge of the project, Gaudí adapted the design, increased the height of the vaults, changed the capitals for more flowery and vegetal ones, opened larger windows, and excavated a perimeter moat throughout the environment to improve lighting and ventilation, avoiding humidity. The most significant change was eliminating the central staircase leading down and accessing the crypt that Villar had planned, replacing it with two spiral staircases on the sides. Gaudí contributed directly to the decoration, making some of the lamps himself. Observe its large vault, where the sculptured and polychrome image of the Annunciation of Mary by the sculptor Joan Flotats stands out. The central altar stands out, with the altarpiece by Josep Llimona and four chapels dedicated to the Virgin of Carmen, Jesus Christ, the Virgin of Montserrat and Christ crucified. Another of the treasures of the crypt is the floor, surrounded by a Roman mosaic with representations of vines and wheat, Mediterranean allegories and fertility, made by the mosaicist Màrius Maragliano. The Nativity façade and this crypt are the only elements built during Gaudí's lifetime. Both elements have been part of UNESCO's World Heritage Works since 2005. And if Gaudí is buried in the chapel on the left (that of the Virgin of Carmen), in the one on the right (dedicated to Christ Crucified) rest the remains of Josep Maria Bocabella, the philanthropist who promoted the creation of the temple and who acquired the site where the Sagrada Familia now stands.

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The Surrender of Breda

On June 5, 1625, Justin of Nassau, Dutch governor of Breda, handed over the keys of the city to Ambrosio Spínola, Genoese general in command of the Flanders thirds. The city had extraordinary strategic importance, and was one of the most disputed places in the long struggle between the Hispanic monarchy and the United Provinces of the North. Its capture after a long siege was considered a military event of the first order, and as such it gave rise to a copious written and figurative production, which aimed to exalt the victors. It is not surprising that when it was decided to decorate the Hall of Kingdoms of the Buen Retiro Palace with a series of paintings of victories obtained during the reign of Philip IV, this one, which was probably the most famous, was included, and that to represent it, Velázquez, by then the most prestigious painter at the court. As in his equestrian portrait of Philip IV (P01178), the artist proudly declares his authorship and the uniqueness of his style through the blank sheet of paper that appears in the lower right corner of the painting. The dimensions of the painting, the importance of the event it describes and the significance of the place to which it was intended invite the painter to make an effort and demonstrate his extraordinary abilities. It was also encouraged by the competitive context that was created in the Salón de Reinos, where the most prominent artists of the court attended. Velázquez responded to the challenge by creating a masterpiece, in which he demonstrates not only his extraordinary descriptive skills or his mastery of aerial perspective but also his ability to narrate and his ability to put all the elements of a painting into perspective. service of specific content.

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Rouen Cathedral. The portal, gray weather.

Claude Monet. 1894. The Rouen series of cathedrals has no less than twenty-eight views of the western portal at different times of the day. The set was painted between 1892 and 1893 and dates from 1894. Twenty of these paintings were presented in 1895 at the Durand-Ruel dealer where they aroused the admiration of Degas, Cezanne, Pissarro and Renoir. In his famous article "Revolution of the Cathedral" that appeared in the newspaper "La Justice" on May 20, 1895, Clemenceau analyzes the company thus: "As long as the sun is on it, there will be so many ways of being of the cathedral of Rouen that man can make divisions in time. The perfect eye would distinguish them all, since they are reduced to vibrations perceptible even to our current retina. The precursor of Monet's eye is before us and guides us in the visual evolution that makes that our perception of the world is more penetrating and more subtle." This view of the portal of Rouen Cathedral is one of those painted in the Mauquit novelty store at 81 Grand-Pont Street. However, it is impossible to precisely determine the chosen time of day; Only the variations of the water particles that saturate the atmosphere contribute to visual perception in cloudy climates attract the artist's attention. The typical heaviness of Rouen's climate puts a veil over the building, represented in gray and blue tones, which the orange touch of the dial warms with the only frank note of the composition. It is on this canvas where the vertical lines that animate the architecture emerge most clearly: perhaps this is one of the reasons that decided François Depeaux to choose, in 1895, these works for his collection.

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Turquoise serpent

This snake mosaic was created in Aztec Mexico. I can be used or carried during religious ceremonies. Snakes were sacred to the Aztecs, as they were the symbol of the feathered serpent god, Quetzalcoatl. The Aztec Empire consisted of many territories, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific. They often had to provide gifts as tribute to demonstrate their loyalty to the Aztec emperor. Luxury objects were considered valuable, not only for their precious materials but also for their painstaking and rigorous workmanship. If you look closely at the snake you can see the exacting standards and refined skills of the craftsman: the tiny turquoise stones were chosen with a careful eye, some of which give a 3D effect. It is a perfectly symmetrical creation. The arrival of Hernán Cortés and his Spanish troops around 1519 put an end to the Aztec Empire. The Spanish expedition was received by Emperor Montezuma, who exchanged gifts, including possibly this turquoise snake, with Cortés. In a surprise move, Cortés imprisoned Moctezuma. After heavy fighting and a prolonged siege, the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, fell to the Spanish in 1521. Much of the native population was wiped out by epidemics of smallpox and other contagious diseases brought by the Spanish.

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Pont des Arts

The Pont des Arts is an iconic bridge located in the heart of Paris, France. It connects the right bank of the Seine to the left bank, thus connecting the Louvre and the Institut de France. This pedestrian bridge is famous for its gates laden with love padlocks, which symbolize the vows of eternal love of the couples who attach them. The Pont des Arts is a romantic and picturesque place that offers breathtaking views of the Seine and the emblematic monuments of Paris. Tourists flock to this bridge to enjoy its romantic atmosphere and to capture memorable photos with the Eiffel Tower in the background. The bridge itself is an architectural masterpiece. It was built at the beginning of the 19th century and is characterized by its cast iron arches and its stone structure. The wrought iron floor lamps add a touch of charm to the whole. The Pont des Arts is also known for its wooden footbridge, which offers a unique experience to visitors by allowing them to stroll above the Seine. Besides its architectural beauty, the Pont des Arts is also a meeting place for street artists and musicians. Visitors can enjoy live music performances, artistic performances and dance demonstrations while strolling the bridge. To fully enjoy your visit to the Pont des Arts, it is recommended to come early in the morning or in the evening, when the crowds are less dense. This will allow you to soak up the romantic atmosphere and enjoy the view without being too bothered by other tourists. In conclusion, the Pont des Arts is a must-see place in Paris for lovers, architecture lovers and street art enthusiasts. Whether you want to declare your love by attaching a padlock, admire the view of the Seine or simply stroll in a romantic setting, this bridge offers a unique and memorable experience.

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Stained glass windows

When you study the structure of Gaudí's temple and compare it with the functioning of Gothic cathedrals, you can understand the master's intention to surpass this style. And he really managed to eliminate the exterior elements, such as buttresses and buttresses, which he considered to be like crutches. This same spirit of overcoming the Gothic is what we capture when the glassmaker Joan Vila-Grau explains to us the stained glass windows he has created for the Basilica, so important for defining an environment that transcends, an interior space of meditation and introspection. In short, a temple. Often, in Gothic cathedrals the most colorful part is the highest part of the stained glass windows, where, from the outside, there is a more direct impact of the sun's rays and without too many obstructions. On the other hand, in lower areas, where trees or other buildings can provide shade, the color filter is less. This distribution tends to seek internal compensation for one effect by the other, a balance, in such a way that in the points where less sun arrives there are fewer filters and vice versa. However, in the Sagrada Familia the opposite is expected: Gaudí seeks maximum contrast. The lightest stained glass windows are located in the highest parts, so that light can enter and illuminate the mosaics and gilding of the vaults that characterize the naves. On the other hand, the figurations and texts in the stained glass windows are located in the lower area, so that they are more visible to visitors and they can read or view them better. In this sense we see parallelism between the distribution of the stained glass windows and Gaudí's recurring concept of overcoming Gothic. Gaudí worked very intensely on stained glass, as on all the subjects that occupied him, and, in this case, the cathedral of Palma de Mallorca served as a test bed to test a truly novel system: trichrome. It was a composition with four layers of superimposed glass, one for each primary color (yellow, cyan blue and magenta) and a fourth transparent closing glass. By conveniently grading the color and moving the drawing in each of the three colored layers, I wanted to achieve the effect of generating a relief drawing, as if it were in three dimensions. Thus, it was intended that the continuous colored surface would mutate progressively, as color does when the incidence of light on a relief varies. It is believed that Gaudí got the idea from a poorly detailed article that was published at the time on Tiffany glass, and that he immersed himself in research and testing, but ultimately did not achieve the desired result. However, we have two stained glass windows left in Mallorca and another in Montserrat made according to this system. On the other hand, the option chosen for the Sagrada Familia was leaded glass, with more than six hundred years of experience behind it.

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Worship of the Golden Calf

This painting made on three articulated tablets, or triptych, from the 16th century represents a biblical narrative in which the Israelites, disloyal to God, worship the golden statue of a calf. Crafted as a continuous landscape by Lucas Van Leyden, in his work the artist warns about infidelity and debauchery in relation to the rise of Protestantism and its strong aversion to the Catholic veneration of religious images. According to the Bible, the people of Israel disobeyed God by erecting a golden calf as an idol in the Sinai desert. This happened during the absence of their leader Moses, who was speaking with God on Mount Sinai. After 40 days and 40 nights Moses returned with the stone tablets of the Law of God, but to his surprise he found all the people ecstatic dancing around the calf. The scene illustrates the sins committed by the Israelites according to Christian tradition; Moses is seen far away in the background of the center panel, kneeling on a rock, as well as further down the mountain with his brother Aaron, as he throws the stone tablets upon seeing the celebrating Israelites. In the central panel, a woman with a child is also seen offering a fruit to a man, as a reference to the 'fall of man' and underlining the idea that surrendering to sensual pleasures is contrary to the commandment of God. The colorful clothing, headdresses and turbans are reminiscent of the East, and at the same time speak of vanity and lust. Everything in general seems to be a warning against the first commandment 'You shall have no other gods before me' and an invitation to live according to God's law.

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Charles V at the Battle of Mühlberg

Mühlberg is a painting painted in oil on canvas by the Venetian painter Tiziano Vecellio in 1548. It measures 335 cm high and 283 cm wide. The Venetian artist made it to represent the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, Charles I, as victorious in the Battle of Mühlberg (April 24, 1547). It is a painting of extraordinary historical value and had great influence in the Baroque era. The painting commemorates the victory of Charles V in the Battle of Mühlberg, which occurred the previous year. It shows the emperor on horseback, stopped in front of the Elbe River; behind him, only a forest. Both the light and the colors are warm, red, ocher. The emperor's face is serious and impassive. Titian was very skillful in softening the monarch's less attractive features. Winner in Mühlberg, it is a portrait that is the best example of the long artistic collaboration with the Spanish monarchy. It represents the myth of power to which a heroic charge is given. Victory seems to be read on his face and an unmistakable profile centers an extraordinary chromatic harmony of red flashes. The figure, as if enclosed in his armor, in contrast to the desolate field, seems to have lost his humanity in favor of that myth of royal power. In this equestrian portrait, the emperor is shown to us as a "soldier of Christ" in defense of Christianity attacked from within by Protestantism. He carries a long spear, reminiscent of Saint George (who according to legend killed a dragon, a beast associated with heresy) and a wheel gun on his pommel. In any case, the painting did not want to emphasize the military defeat, and the landscape in the background is placid, without troops or any representation of the defeated enemies. In this work, Titian summarizes the ancient chivalric ideals of Burgundy, which the emperor knew, along with abundant references to the classical world. Charles V used to be called Caesar Carolus, in an effort to relate him to the Roman emperors. Titian combines the stereotypes of the medieval knight and the imperial leader, and in this way creates the best summary of a public image as complex as that of Charles V, who had to manage and keep together a transoceanic empire with multiple languages and cultures. It seems that the painting was not commissioned by the monarch, but by his sister Mary of Hungary. A repeatedly told anecdote is that the canvas was blown over by the wind while drying, resulting in damage to the horse's rump. The crack, they say, was repaired by another artist, Christoph Amberger. X-rays confirm the existence of such damage. Preserved in the different royal palaces that the king had built in Spain, the painting suffered the fire of the Alcázar of Madrid in 1734. The darkening of the lower area, where the colors of the earth and grass are seen, is attributed to that incident. burned and reduced to a dark ocher. Fortunately, the essential parts are better preserved and can currently be seen in all their splendor, thanks to a restoration carried out in 2000-01.

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House of Cryptoporticus

The House of Cryptoporticus is located on the south side of Via delle Abbondanza at the junction with Vicolo di Pacius Proculus. The house was excavated in 1911-29. In ancient times, House Lararium and House of Cryptoporticus were part of a single mansion that belonged to the family of Valery Ruth. After an earthquake, the owner's affairs declined and he sold his house to two owners, who divided it. The house of Cryptoporticus got its name from the architectural term Cryptoporticus, meaning a covered passage or corridor. The crypto portico in this house, with its luxurious bathrooms, was converted into a warehouse after 62 years. The entrance to the house opens into a long hallway that has lost most of its plaster, and the remaining plaster has faded too much to describe its decoration. The lodge houses stored helmets of people who once lived here. It is not known whether these people were masters or servants of the house. Most likely it was a family that lived here. It is doubtful that the servants can stay in the city while their masters try to escape. The peristyle was surrounded on both sides by brick pillar columns, covered with plaster, which supported the inner edges of the roof. The gaps between the columns were filled with a 0.75 m high fence. In the center of the peristyle, there was a small interior garden. On the east side of the peristyle, there were a series of rooms. This part of the house is in very poor condition, seriously affected by Allied bombing in September 1943. One piece of decoration that has been preserved is the painted lararium on the western part of the north porch. Lararium is a family altar dedicated to the spirits of the house and its ancestors. The decoration of the Lararium represents a large serpent, raising its head to the bust of Mercury, installed in the arched niche above the protruding ledge. Under the niche is the second snake, coiled around a small altar. In the background are various plants and birds, including a rather magnificent peacock. The lararium is framed by a red frame and sits above the lower black frieze.

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The harvesters

The Harvesters is one of six panels painted by Pieter Bruegel the Elder for the suburban Antwerp home of the wealthy merchant Niclaes Jongelinck, and this extraordinary work was notable in its time not only for the quality of its depiction but also because it went beyond the stereotyped. Views of the stations that were typical of the time. This painting represents the late summer harvest in Belgium. Imagine standing on top of the hill in the foreground watching and listening to this 16th century agricultural scene. Against a background of low hills and a valley, you can see more than 40 people in this painting participating in various activities, so the more you look at this painting, the more people you will discover. In the foreground on the right, next to the large pear tree, a group of hungry people are eating and drinking. They are consuming bowls of milk and cereal, pears from the tree, bread and cheese. The person to the left of this group has already fallen asleep with his pants half open. You can see a church tower hidden behind the trees, just to the right of the large tree in the foreground. The creator of this masterpiece, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, was an innovative Flemish Renaissance painter and printmaker, known for his sweeping landscapes and peasant scenes. He was apprenticed to painter Pieter Croecke van Aelst from his early life, and in 1551, at the age of 26, he was accepted into the Antwerp painters' guild as a master painter. His nickname was "Peasant Brueghel", as he often donned peasant clothing and attended social gatherings and weddings, to mingle and interact with the locals, and gain information and inspiration for his paintings. He was also the father of two other prominent Flemish painters, Pieter Brueghel the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder, although it is believed that they were not taught by their father, as he died when they were young children. As a pioneer in Dutch genre painting, he portrayed social aspects of 16th-century life, many of which were peasant paintings, with a large element of landscape.

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Portal of Hope

Dedicated to Saint Joseph, as is evident in the number of symbols scattered throughout the architecture, which allude to him and his condition as a carpenter: there is a saw, a mace, a chisel, a square, a hammer and an axe. Do you see them? Let's now look at the scenes. At the top appear the Betrothal of the Virgin and Saint Joseph and just below, in the center, father and son talk under the watchful eye of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne, their grandparents. You will see that the child carries a dove in his hand, a symbol of humility in the face of his father's teachings. On the sides of the door the Flight into Egypt and the Massacre of the Innocents are also represented. Below the upper pinnacle appears Saint Joseph in a boat, which he pilots as the helmsman of the Holy Family. The builders of the temple wanted to pay a posthumous tribute to Gaudí and that is why the face of Saint Joseph is that of the architect himself.

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Presbytery and High Altar

We find ourselves in front of the presbytery, the most important part of the Temple. Located at the head of the central nave, it is delimited by 10 columns and elevated 2 meters above the floor level of the Basilica. The main altar is located there, where the Eucharistic liturgy is celebrated, the preeminent celebration and reason for the assembly. You can also see the organ and seating for 140 concelebrants. The stained glass windows are the work of Joan Vila-Grau. Now observe the dome of the apse, it is covered with a golden mosaic, which represents a triangle within a circle, as a symbol of the Trinity (triangle), which is within the world (circle) that it has created. The main altar, that structure that you have before you in the shape of a table, is a block of porphyry, from Iran, roughed on the sides and polished on the top. Now observe the baldachin, traditionally, it is a kind of dome or canopy that shelters the Altar. In this case, the baldachin hangs from the two basalt columns that are aligned with the altar, dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul. Its structure is metallic and heptagonal in shape, alluding to the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit: wisdom, intelligence, counsel, strength, science, piety and fear of God. Inside, a lighting system highlights the inscriptions. Observe the ears and clusters in allusion to the symbols of the bread and wine of the Eucharist. Below, seven lamps hang on each side that, added to the main one, total 50 in reference to the 50 days that Easter lasts. The Glory prayer covers its entire perimeter in backlit red Gaudian calligraphy. Finally, from the canopy hangs an expressionist crucified Christ, the personal creation of the artist and architect Francesc Fajula. Baked earth work that could be said to be carnal due to the exceptional realism of its finish, natural patina based on waxes. Although a majority of observers, upon seeing the profile image, get the feeling that he appears naked, this is not the case. Seen from the front, it can be seen that the hips are covered by a slightly taut veil. This High Altar was consecrated by Pope Benedict XVI on November 7, 2010.

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The temple

Stop now next to the model of the Temple to learn about the genesis and subsequent evolution of this masterpiece. The construction of the Basilica of the Sagrada Familia was born from the initiative of Josep Maria Bocabella i Verdaguer, a Barcelona bookseller of fervent Catholic faith who, in 1870, after his visit to the sanctuary of the Sagrada Familia in Loreto, was so amazed that he decided to build one. replica in Barcelona, specifically, acquires these lands in Ensanche and commissions the project to the architect Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano, who offers to work without pay, since the temple begins to be built with the contributions of the faithful of the Association of Devotees of Saint Joseph. The first stone was laid on March 19, 1882, St. Joseph's Day, and construction began, as was customary, with the foundations of the crypt. Bocadella dreamed of building an exact replica of the Loreto sanctuary, but Villar convinces him to build a neo-Gothic temple, in accordance with the trends of the moment. Inspired by the great medieval cathedrals, it contemplated a building with three naves with a Latin cross plan, a crypt of notable dimensions, an apse with seven chapels and a steeple bell tower located above the 85-meter-high porch. This verticality, together with the design of exterior buttresses and large honeycomb windows, provided a clear Gothic identity to the building. In 1833, after several disagreements with Bocabella, Villar resigned, and the works were entrusted to a young and still unknown Gaudí, who had just turned 31 and who had also worked for Villar. Gaudí was appointed architect of the temple on November 3, 1883, finding himself with a project and some works already begun: the foundations of the crypt were completed and the columns had already reached half their height. Gaudí, in a few weeks, completely changed the original project: he proposed a Temple of enormous dimensions, 90 meters long by 60 meters wide, on a plan in the shape of a Latin cross, with 5 naves, 12 bell towers, 6 domes, being one of them, that of Jesus Christ, the element that culminates the Basilica with 172.5 meters high, and three monumental facades dedicated to the Birth, Passion and Glory of Jesus respectively. Gaudí not only changes the structure of the building, but also gives another meaning and significance to the work: He presents the Temple as a great stone Bible that explains the history and mysteries of the Christian Faith. A link between earth and sky. There were things that Gaudí could not change and that he deeply regretted, such as the orientation of the building. He would have liked to project the temple in a canonical orientation, that is, towards Jerusalem, the sunrise, the apse (the head of the cross plan) and the main access door (the feet of the cross plan) towards the sunset, but since the crypt was already built it was not possible. During Gaudí's lifetime only the crypt, the apse and, partially, the Nativity façade were completed. Currently, with more than 137 years since the first stone was laid, the Basilica is still under construction and is expected to be completed between 2026 and 2028. We do not know for sure what the temple would have been like if Villar had finished his project and we do not know what it would have been like if Gaudí had directed the project from the beginning. Villar wanted to build a powerful temple, but of course Gaudí made a universal masterpiece, building a superlative temple, which unites faith and artistic genius. Finally, it should be noted that the temple was consecrated as a Minor Basilica in 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI, and has capacity for about 8,000 people.

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Casa de Casca Longus or Theatrical Pictures

The complex is made up of two separate houses dating back to the 2nd century BC. Those houses today are used as a primary and secondary atrium. This house was named the Casa di P. Casca Longus from the inscription on marble table legs found in Garden I of House. The excavators assumed it was cartilage and therefore positioned themselves at the end of the impluvium in the atrium. They concluded that the table was too large for the house I 6, 8-9 and therefore must have been from this house. Therefore, the associations of this house with a P. Casca Longus are unfounded. The lack of skeletal remains suggests that, although this house had been inhabited up to the time of the eruption, the occupants managed to escape from the house before the city was completely devastated. The complete absence of material in the kitchen and the apparent lack of activity at the back of the house imply that this house was, at most, only partially functional at the time of the eruption. Perhaps some disturbance other than the final eruption caused the reduction of living conditions or even abandonment. Most of the finds came from the entrance, main hallway, room 06 and room 10. The first two areas appear to have finished decorating, which in the front hall had been restored. Room 06 was unexploded, and the walls of room 10 were reported as unadorned. Placing furniture in these rooms with bare walls implied that any attempt to redecorate them had been abandoned. The author of the interior design Maiuri seems to have been a little confused about the date of the decoration. He originally stated that the house was being decorated in the Fourth Style when the disaster occurred. He found the decoration in the entrance, the main room, rooms 01 to 05 and in 13 contemporary outpatient clinics. He later argued that the house had just been decorated in the Third Style when the earthquake of 62 AD damaged the structure and decoration. This could explain the repair to the west wall and the dilapidated state of the garden area. It also means that access to the m' store had been closed before the earthquake, but that the m' store was still accessible from the house. Access to the store from the main lobby had been cut off, but the entrance through room 01 was still open. Therefore, the decision to block the second door and the store must have been at a later stage. It would also mean that the furniture had been replaced after the decoration repair in the lobby was completed. The furniture placed against the undecorated walls in room 06 indicates that any intention to redecorate this space had been abandoned. This change of plan is inconsistent with the painted repair in the lobby. Perhaps another interruption after the one that started the repair and redecoration caused this redecoration to be modified or abandoned.

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Parthenon Sculptures

This collection of fragments from the Parthenon brings together one of the greatest masterpieces of classical Greek art. Built as a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena between 447 BC. C. and 432 BC. C., the Parthenon was the centerpiece of an ambitious construction program on the Acropolis of Athens; Its large size and splendid use of white marble were intended to show the power and wealth of the city at the height of its empire. In total, the collection represents more than half of the Parthenon's decorative sculptures: 75 meters of the almost 160 meters that the original frieze had; 15 of the 92 metopes; 17 partial figures of the pediments as well as other pieces of architecture. The frieze represents the people of contemporary Athens in religious procession, while the pediments and metopes illustrate episodes from Greek mythology. All the pieces arrived in England between 1801 and 1805 at the hands of Lord Thomas Bruce Elgin, a British officer residing in Athens, and since 1939 they have been exhibited in the British Museum. However, there is a deep debate about what should have been done with the marbles. Although Elgin's motive was to protect them from a contaminated environment, many people, especially the Greek government, believe that they should be returned to Athens to be displayed in the Acropolis Museum, since the marbles are not independent pieces but were torn down, dismembering a unique monument.

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The meridian

The Meridian or The Nap (after Millet), by Vincent van Gogh. Between 1889 and 1890. The Siesta was painted during Van Gogh's stay in Saint-Rémy de Provence when he was admitted to an asylum. The composition has taken up a drawing by Millet for The Four Hours of the Day. Vincent explains this approach to his brother Théo: "It's more about translating chiaroscuro impressions in black and white into another language, that of colors." Van Gogh has copied works by Millet on numerous occasions, whom he considered "a more modern painter than Manet." Although faithful to the original composition down to the details of the still life in the foreground, Van Gogh completely appropriates this resting scene that symbolizes, for Millet, rural France in the 1860s. This personal retranscription is essentially carried out using a chromatic construction based on the contrast of the complementary colors blue-violet and yellow-orange. Despite the tranquil nature of the subject, the unique intensity of Van Gogh's art is found here.

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The Merry Family

Joy is lived in this house, old and young are having the most fun. The mother and grandmother sing, the children make music and smoke, while the father raises a glass of wine. The younger children follow his example. On the mantelpiece, a note says it all: 'Like father, like son.' Made by Dutch artist Jan Steen in 1668, this painting was not necessarily a realistic depiction of life in the Netherlands during the 17th century, but rather a means of expressing his brand of humor and irony while also providing a moral message. At first glance, his themes seem fun, but there is often a subtle reference or hidden message hidden somewhere in the piece. In this case it is as if he wanted to say 'What will happen to the children if their parents set the wrong example?'. Steen was a good storyteller with a flair for staging. As a curious fact, to talk about a messy house today the Dutch still use the expression 'a Jan Steen home', and culturally it is thought that those who live in places like this are happy people, like the family in this work... an environment which definitely contrasts with the very calm and organized paintings of his contemporary Vermeer.

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Equestrian statue of Louis XIV

It is a late sculpture designed and partially executed by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini first discussed the project while in France in the mid-1660s, but did not begin until later in the decade, when he returned to Rome. It was not completed until 1684, and was then shipped to Paris in 1685. Bernini was the great sculptor of the time, the Michelangelo of the 17th century, so having a statue made by him was a great honor. Legend has it that upon seeing the sculpture Louis XIV, he was so dissatisfied with the result that he wanted to destroy it. They quickly dissuade him that he cannot be a lover of the arts and destroy the statue of a "genius" like Bernini. Finally, Louis The original would be kept in the Greenhouse and the one we see is just a copy. Another copy of this sculpture can be found right in front of the Louvre pyramid in Paris.

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Portrait of the artist

Vincent van Gogh. 1889. We are facing one of the most beautiful and vibrant paintings by Vincent Van Gogh. This is one of the more than 43 self-portraits with which the famous painter shows us the passage of time in him and the evolution of his technique. It is a fortune to be able to observe the artist in his different stages and this is not due to a narcissistic or pretentious desire, but rather responds to the need to have a model, which was expensive due to the number of hours it involved. With a mirror this monetary inconvenience disappeared. Van Gogh writes to his brother Theo “I deliberately brought a mirror good enough to allow me to work with my image because I had no model, because if I can paint the color of my own head, which I don't think completing it would be that difficult, I could paint the heads. of other good souls, men and women.” Van Gogh looks at us directly, intensely, and we can notice certain marks of fatigue on his face, but the background seems to reflect the energy and inner fire that Vincent possessed. This self-portrait was made in the last year of his life in Saint-Rémy, seven months after the tragic episode of the cutting of his left ear, which we cannot see due to his posture in front of the mirror.

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The presentation in the temple

The Presentation in the Temple is a painting by the late medieval Italian painter Ambrogio Lorenzetti, signed and dated 1342, now located in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. It is one of the medieval Italian painter's largest works, as well as one of five he signed and dated. The painting originally decorated the altar of St. Crescentius in Siena Cathedral, and had been commissioned as part of a cycle of four altarpieces dedicated to the city's patron saints (St. Ansanus, St. Sabinus of Spoleto, St. Crescentius and St. Victor). during 1330-1350. These included the Annunciation with Saint Margaret and Saint Ansanus by Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi, the Nativity of the Virgin by Pietro Lorenzetti (1342, Altar of San Sabino), and a Nativity, now dismantled, attributed to Bartolomeo Bulgarini from 1351 (altar of Saint Victor). All the paintings were supposed to represent stories from the Life of the Virgin and were crowned by the Maestà of Duccio di Buoninsegna. The use of expensive lacquer in the paintings and lapis lazuli shows the prestige of the commission. Two 15th-century descriptions mention the work as a triptych, with two side panels depicting Saint Michael the Archangel and Saint Crescentius the Martyr (who held his head in one hand), and then a predella. A century later, artists such as Giovanni di Paolo and Bartolo di Fredi executed copies of the painting. It was later dismantled and placed in a nunnery in Siena. The Grand Duke Ferdinand III of Tuscany was transferred to Florence in 1822. It became part of the Uffizi collection in 1913.

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Grove of the Water Theater

Yes, this fountain is not original from the 17th century. Created between 1671 and 1674, the Water Theater Grove is one of the richest designed by Le Nôtre in Versailles, presenting a stage that is surrounded by complex water features. Under Louis XVI the original copse was completely destroyed. In 2011, a competition was launched to give new life to this abandoned grove. The success of the project is the landscape architect Louis Benech, combined with the plastic artist Jean-Michel Othoniel, who invites visitors to a dance walk. It was inaugurated in 2015. Three fountains with glass bead sculptures were built. The idea is that if you look at them from above, they represent a choreography, the trails of the steps that the dancers leave when dancing.

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Colossal Bust of Ramesses II

This is one of the largest pieces of Egyptian sculpture within the British Museum. Weighing 7.25 tons, it is a fragment of a statue made from a single block of two-color granite. The sculptor has placed her eyes looking slightly downward, so that those who look at her can meet her gaze. Ramses was 25 years old when he ascended the throne as the third king of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt, succeeding his father Sethos around 1279 BC. In his 67-year reign, he built more temples and had more sons than any other king of Egypt, and Today he is known as Ramses, the Great. This fragment was found in the funerary temple of Ramses at Thebes, by Giovanni Belzoni in 1816. A fascinating account of his struggle to transport the statue still survives from Belzoni. Many others had tried it before, including members of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in the late 18th century. In fact, it is said that when trying to take the statue, they made the hole on the left side.

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Sacrifice of Isaac

The painting illustrates the Old Testament passage in which God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his only son, Isaac. Caravaggio faithfully describes the crucial moment of the dramatic story, when Abraham, at the very moment he is about to sacrifice Isaac, is blocked by an angel sent by the Lord. ""Don't lay a hand on the child," he said. "Don't do anything to him. Now I know that you fear God, because you have not withheld your son from me, your only son." God's messenger tells Abraham (Genesis 22, verse 12) pointing with his left hand to a ram to sacrifice. Caravaggio decided to humanize the figure of the angel, placing him next to Abraham as a solid presence that firmly grasps the old man's wrist. In the background there is a mountainous and Mediterranean landscape, with small roads and farm animals, and a small town. Critics have identified echoes of the style of the Caravaggio's training in the regions of Lombardy and Veneto. In the past, this work has also been subject to a symbolic interpretation according to which the building on the hill is a church with a baptistery, a reference to the future birth of the Catholic church, while that the light diffused on the background symbolizes the light of divine grace The sacrifice of young Isaac serves, therefore, to foreshadow the sacrifice of Christ. The biblical theme was certainly chosen by the illustrious client of the work, Maffeo Barberini, the influential cardinal and future pope Urban VIII. All critics have declared that this is an authentic Caravaggio, an attribution that is also confirmed by the payments made to the painter by Maffeo Barberini himself. The painting was donated to the Uffizi in 1917, by John Fairfax Murray, who had purchased it as a work by Gherardo delle Notti, from a company that had purchased part of the possessions of the Colonna Sciarra family of Rome, late in the afternoon . 19th century.

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Facade of Glory

You now contemplate what will be the façade of Glory. It will be the largest and most monumental, as it is the main entrance to the temple. It will be completed in the last construction phase. It will be dedicated to the Glory of Jesus, his path of ascension to heaven, as well as Hell. Gaudí left some general sketches of the work but with little development. Starting from the only surviving model of this cover, the architects have designed a façade with 8 columns on which the towers will rise. Illuminated clouds will be placed above them that will represent the Holy Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. They will contain the Creed in large letters, and will be placed on 16 large lanterns arranged in ascending order: the lower seven will represent the days of creation, and the upper nine, the angelic hierarchies. These columns will in turn allow seven entrances, dedicated to the seven sacraments and the seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer. Access to the porch will be via a staircase with a terrace where a monument dedicated to fire and water will be erected. In the underground under the stairs, Hell and vice will be represented, which will be decorated with demons. The temple is expected to be completed by 2026-2028.

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Two temple guards

These sculptures in the form of guards were located at the entrance of a Japanese Buddhist temple during the 14th century. Their mission was to protect the temple from evil, for this they hold a vajra or small utensil that serves to crush ignorance. Their open and closed mouths represent the first and last letters of Japanese writing: A and N, symbolizing the totality of sounds and letters, that is, knowledge. According to belief, those who entered the temple through the door guarded by the guardians symbolically received that knowledge. The highly expressive sculptures are a good illustration of the style that emerged in Japan around the Middle Ages. Sculptors began to build statues from joined and hollowed pieces of wood and were able to enlarge them, give them more naturalistic poses, and even improve the expression of faces, making them more intense and terrifying.

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Charles V and the Fury

The Emperor Charles V and the Furor, also called Charles V dominating the Protestant Furor, or sometimes Charles V dominating the Turkish Furor, is a sculpture belonging to the museum. It is a sculpture in patinated bronze, representing Emperor Charles V, which he himself commissioned from the Milanese sculptor Leone Leoni in 1549. The idea came from the sculptor himself and was finally approved and commissioned by the Emperor. It was made between 1551 and 1564 and was completed by Leone's son, Pompeo Leoni. It is inspired by a quote from the Roman poet Virgil alluding to Roman peace. The sculpture is partly removable, since the Emperor appears naked and the armor that covers him can be removed or put on at will. The statue has been located in various places, although always in the vicinity of Madrid. In 1608, by order of Philip III, it was placed in the Real Alcázar. In 1620 it was moved, as a decorative element, to the garden of the Palace of Aranjuez. In 1634 it was taken to the Retiro gardens in Madrid and from there it was moved, at the end of the 18th century, to the Buenavista Palace (then residence of Manuel Godoy). In 1811, through a decree of José I, the statue became "property of the people" and was placed on a fountain in the Plaza de Santa Ana. At the beginning of the 20th century it was in the Alcázar of Toledo and at the end The Spanish Civil War became part of the collections of the Prado Museum. Charles V appears dressed in Roman style, with a breastplate and backrest, dominating a fallen and chained man, the personification of Fury; This figure holds a burning torch in his right hand. The Emperor brandishes a spear with his right, and a cutlass with his left; Both weapons can be disassembled. The armor can be separated from the body, showing Charles V naked in the manner of Greco-Roman heroes. The base of the sculpture shows various objects alluding to war, such as a shield, a morion, a breastplate, and other attributes. The work presents notable detail and technical perfection. Commemorative statues with removable parts were rare during the Renaissance, due to the complexity of their construction and assembly.

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The reclining woman

Schiele's choice of sunflowers as a motif undoubtedly owes something to the precedents set by Van Gogh and Gustav Klimt. Van Gogh's funflowers had been popular in Vienna since the artist's work was first exhibited there in the early 20th century. Shortly after a 1906 exhibition of Van Gogh at the Galerie Miethke, Klimt painted two images of the subject, which were shown at the great "Kunstschau" (Art Exhibition) held in Vienna in 1908. Schiele, who no doubt knew Klim'ts' sunflower paintings in the original and was familiar with Van Gogh's from reproductions if not direct contact, nevertheless brought his own interpretation to the subject. Van Gogh's canvases tended to depict formal flower arrangements in vases, while Klimt's sunflowers were shown in nature, surrounded by dense, suffocating botanical life. Like Klimt's sunflowers, Schieles appear in their natural state, with fat stems and leaves still attached. However, as was the younger artist's custom, the background has been left vacant, so the flowers, lacking a soothing context, represent elemental entities in themselves.

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Door to hell

Auguste Rodin. Between 1880 and 1917. In the same location as the Orsay station, the old Court of Auditors was built in the 19th century. Burned in 1871 during the Paris Commune, it was replaced by a Museum of Decorative Arts. For the entrance, the State commissioned a monumental door from Rodin in 1880. It must have been decorated with eleven bas-reliefs representing Dante's Divine Comedy. Rodin was inspired by the famous doors that Ghiberti had made in the 15th century for the Baptistery of Florence. Three years later, the artist achieved a first state that satisfied him, but the museum project was abandoned. This door without a destination then becomes, for Rodin, a kind of creative reserve for numerous projects that end up freeing themselves from it, such as The Thinker or The Kiss. The Gate of Hell, which only some introduced critics have been able to see, then assumes a symbolic value, that of Rodin's unconstrained creative genius, for some, and his inability to reach a result, for others. It will only be shown at the Universal Exhibition of 1900 and in an incomplete version. At the top, the group of the three Shadows, with an extremely modern approach, is, in reality, the triple repetition of the same figure with an amputated arm. In the tremó, the Thinker (Dante himself) rises above the abyss. In the right wing, we recognize Ugolin. In the one on the left, Paolo and Francesca join in a slip of bodies. The whole emerges from boiling lava. The convulsive poses translate desperation, pain, curse. The shapes invade the structure, to such an extent that they sometimes replace architectural elements. A symbolist work par excellence that leaves total freedom to the imagination, the high relief gives way to the vehemence and expressive power of the human body, in an indeterminate space, extremely disturbed by the play of shadows and lights. The plaster of the Orsay Museum dates from 1917. The Gate of Hell, in the end, is in the location for which it was commissioned, but, however, without fulfilling its function as a gate.

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Reclining nude in gray

Anton Kolig (1886–1950) is one of the most eminent Austrian painters of the first half of the 20th century. Kolig is an outstanding representative of a dynamic figurative painting typical of his time. His works are characterized by a masterfully energetic hand and vibrant, luminous colors. The main subjects of Kolig's paintings were portraits and figurative allegories. The presentation at the Leopold Museum is the first complete solo exhibition of works by Anton Kolig to be held in Vienna in more than 50 years. The Leopold Museum is especially well placed to host such an exhibition, as it houses the most comprehensive collection of the artist's works in a museum with more than 20 paintings. The presentation features some 60 paintings and 50 works on paper by Kolig.

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Trevi's Fountain

The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi district of Rome, Italy, designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi and completed by Pietro Bracci. At 26.3 meters (86 ft) high and 49.15 meters (161.3 ft) wide, it is the largest baroque fountain in the city and one of the most famous fountains in the world. The fountain has appeared in several notable films, including Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita, the eponymous Three Phons in the Fountain, and The Lizzie McGuire Movie. In 1629, Pope Urban VIII, finding the previous fountain insufficiently dramatic, asked Gian Lorenzo Bernini to outline possible renovations, but the project was abandoned when the Pope died. Although Bernini's project was never built, there are many Bernini touches in the fountain as it exists today. The design of the Trevi fountain is based on three architectural elements: a facade made of travertine; Carrara marble statues; a reef also seen of travertine.

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Battle of San Roman

This panel is part of a cycle of three paintings celebrating the victory of the Florentine forces over the troops of Siena and the alliance led by the Duke of Milan at the Battle of San Romano (Pisa) in 1432. Niccolò da Tolentino, at head of the Florentine army, is shown defeating Bernardino della Carda, the leader of the opposing troops, with his spear as the battle rages all around. The direction of the lances and crossbows, with those of the Florentine forces slightly inclined forward and those of the adversaries slightly behind, announces the outcome of the battle. The Uffizi panel is the central episode of the narrative sequence that begins with Niccolò da Tolentino leading the Florentine forces, in the painting now in the National Gallery in London, and concludes with the Attack of Michelotto da Cotignola, an ally of the Florentine army, illustrated on panel now in the Louvre Museum in Paris. The decorative cycle was commissioned by Lionardo Bartolini Salimbeni, a protagonist of Florentine political life since the beginning of the 15th century, for his palace in Florence, a few years after the epic feat itself. Originally, the panels had an arched top, which was inserted between the arches of a room covered with a corbel arch. Lionardo Bartolini's heirs then sold the paintings to Lorenzo il Magnifico, who placed them in his palace on Via Larga (now known as Palazzo Medici-Riccardi on Via Cavour) probably asking Paolo Uccello, the painter of the cycle, to change the form. , as he did when signing the panel now in the Uffizi, at the bottom left. The integrations in the corners show the representation of orange leaves, the "mala medica" or sour orange, which was the emblem of the Medici family. To show the armor and bridles on the horses, Paolo Uccello used a fairly large amount of sheet metal, which in the past would have given the painting a richness of color. Uccello was a virtuoso in perspective, and he shows it in the construction of foreshortened bodies that allow us to assume a point of view from the bottom, due to the position of the panels in Lionardo Bartolini's palace.

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Reina Sofia Museum

The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS) is a Spanish museum of 20th century and contemporary art, based in Madrid. Its name is usually abbreviated as Museo Reina Sofía. It took as its headquarters the old General Hospital of Madrid, a large neoclassical building from the 18th century. This hospital was initially designed by José de Hermosilla and later continued by Francesco Sabatini, and is currently known as the Sabatini building in honor of this Italian architect. The museum was inaugurated in 1992. In the museum's permanent collection, a core of works by great Spanish artists of the 20th century stands out, especially Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Joan Miró, widely represented and with some of their best works. Also very relevant are the collections of surrealist art (with works by Francis Picabia, René Magritte, Óscar Domínguez and Yves Tanguy, in addition to the aforementioned Miró and Dalí), cubism (which Picasso adds to the collection names such as Juan Gris, Georges Braque, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger or Albert Gleizes), and the presence of expressionist artists, such as Francis Bacon or Antonio Saura.

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Frederic Chopin's grave

The romantic composer who died in 1849 is one of the greatest masters of the piano as a soloist. He is considered the father of modern music. When he died, aged 39, his hands were plastered and reproduced in bronze. The reproduction can be seen at the musée de la vie romantique (the museum of romantic life), in Paris. The tomb is guarded by the weeping muse of music Euterpe, next to a broken lyre. It was designed by Auguste Clesinger, son-in-law of George Sand. Chopin had to flee his native Poland and brought sand from his motherland into his exile. He asked that the jar of sand be buried with him. One can be seen on top of the grave, probably left as a tribute by a fan.

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Hotel Cabu

Hotel Cabu is a charming establishment located in the heart of Orléans, offering tourists a comfortable and pleasant stay. This family-run hotel offers spacious and well-appointed rooms equipped with all the necessary amenities to make your stay memorable. Each room is tastefully decorated, offering a warm and welcoming atmosphere. Guests can enjoy friendly and attentive service from hotel staff, who are always ready to meet your needs and provide information on local attractions. The hotel's central location gives you easy access to major Orleans attractions, such as the Sainte-Croix Cathedral, the Museum of Fine Arts and the historic district. In addition, the hotel is well served by public transport, making it easy to get around the city. After a busy day exploring the city, you can relax in the hotel's comfortable lounge or enjoy a drink in the bar. Breakfast is served every morning in the dining room, offering a selection of delicious dishes to start your day off right. If you are looking for comfortable and affordable accommodation in Orléans, Hôtel Cabu is the ideal choice.

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Virgin of the rose garden

The Virgin of the Rose Garden is a tempera painting on panel (124x64 cm) made by Sandro Botticelli, whose date between 1469 and 1470 makes it one of his first paintings. The work was housed in the Chamber of Commerce in Florence, leading to the hypothesis that, like Botticelli's earlier painting, the Madonna della loggia, it had been commissioned by the Wool Guild or the Tribunale della Mercanzia. Wilhelm von Bode was the first to date the work to the artist's youthful phase, particularly to the Verrocchio period, 1469-1470, which has since been confirmed by other scholars. The Virgin Mary, with a pensive attitude, holds the Child Jesus on her knees under a loggia with columns that support a semicircular arch with a coffered ceiling, framing the head of the Virgin and following the curved profile of the board. Behind Mary stretches a garden with its pink roses dominating the foreground. Below it is a framed marble tiled floor demonstrating the painter's mastery of the perspective technique. The roses symbolize one of Mary's titles, "Mystical Rose." The pomegranate, which Mary holds in her hand and which the Child is tasting, symbolizes fertility, royalty and, with its red color, the blood of the Passion of Jesus. The work displays the incisive use of chiaroscuro reminiscent of Verrocchio, in whose workshop Botticelli may have trained. The same type of child, with a large oval head and a cheerful, lively expression, can be seen in Verrocchio Putto's dolphin sculpture from the same period. The figure of Mary is elongated and vaguely posed, much more so than in the works of Filippo Lippi, another of the young Botticelli's models. There are some uncertainties in the space, such as the disproportion of the architectural background which is too small compared to the figure of Mary and also compared to the flowers in the garden behind her.

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Altar of Jucio Universal (1535-41)

Michelangelo completed the decoration of the Sistine Chapel, forever altering the organic ensemble laid out by Sixtus IV, both in terms of iconography and in the spatial articulation of the environment. The Universal Judgment was commissioned by Pope Clement VII and was later confirmed by his successor Paul III. After studies for the composition and sketches and after the necessary interventions for the preparation of the wall, the artist raised the scaffolding and completed the fresco in another five years of work. Michelangelo conceived the work as a vision that expands beyond the physical space of the Chapel: the visitor peers into a second reality, where the second advent of Christ at the end of time is represented. To suggest the depth of the space, the artist first renounced the sweeping of false painted architecture, common in the rest of the frescoed surfaces, and secondly he resorted to blue lapis lazuli, which he used as an ideal background on which to cut out the figures. Based mainly on Dante's Divine Comedy, it represents his vision of the end of times with 399 naked figures spread along the entire wall representing two main scenes: heaven and hell. In the central part, Jesus the Judge raises his right hand upward, indicating the saved, and his left hand downward, indicating the condemned. His Mother Mary at his side, and an entire celestial choir ready as if it were a solar system. The Saints can be recognized by the symbol of martyrdom, such as Saint Sebastian, on the left, with the arrows; Saint Andrew with the cross in the shape of an the skin''. Below Jesus, a choir of Angels with two books in their hands: the small one, with the name of the saved, heads towards the area of the saved while the large one, that of the damned, looks towards hell. Among the infernal characters you can see Judge Minos, with the characteristics of Pope Paul III's advisor, Biagio da Cesena, who dared to criticize Michelangelo and out of revenge painted him as a demon with donkey ears. Years later, Michelangelo was treated as a heretic, and the impressive fresco threatened with destruction. However, it was the work of Daniele da Volterra, a student of Michelangelo, who covered the nudes, painting a series of ''panties'', preventing the fresco from being destroyed. From that moment on the painter was known as ''El Braghettone'', that is, the painter of underwear.

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lower level passion facade

The lower level begins on the left with the Last Supper of Jesus and the Apostles. At the foot you can read: “What you are going to do, do it quickly”, in reference to the imminent betrayal of Judas. Following the Gethsemane Gate, we find the scene of Peter and the Soldiers and the Kiss of Judas. Observe that behind the figure of Judas appears the snake, symbol of the devil and a magic square. To the right of the central doors we will see the Denial of Peter. The three women and the rooster represent the three times he denied Christ before sunrise. Furthermore, Pedro is wrapped in a sheet, a symbol of cowardice. The last scenes on the lower level correspond to Ecce Homo and the Judgment of Christ. Jesus, already wearing the crown of thorns, is presented before a doubtful Pontius Pilate and is guarded by two Roman soldiers. Look at their hooves. They are an evocation by Subirachs of the chimneys of the Milá house, as a tribute from the sculptor to Gaudí, although it will not be the only one we see. At the feet of the Nazarene the stone is cracked, representing the imminent fracture of the World before the condemnation of the son of God. A column with the inscription “Tiberius Emperor of Rome” on which the imperial eagle rests, acts as a separation from the following scene, in which Pontius Pilate washes his hands assisted by three servants. We observe a figure walking away, it is Procula, the wife of the Roman Governor, who after failing in her attempt to intercede for the prisoner, leaves dejected.

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birth of venus

Known as the "Birth of Venus", the composition actually shows the goddess of love and beauty arriving on land, on the island of Cyprus, born from sea mist and carried by the winds, Zephyr and, perhaps, Aura. The goddess stands on a giant scallop shell, as pure and perfect as a pearl. He encounters a young woman, sometimes identified as one of the Graces or the Hour of Spring, holding a cloak covered in flowers. Even the roses, blown by the wind, are a reminder of spring. The theme of the painting, which celebrates Venus as a symbol of love and beauty, was perhaps suggested by the poet Agnolo Poliziano. The work was most likely commissioned by a member of the Medici family, although there is nothing written about the painting before 1550, when Giorgio Vasari described it in the Medici Villa di Castello, owned by the Cadet Branch of Medici. the Medici family, since In the middle of the 15th century. This hypothesis would seem to arise from the orange trees in the painting, which are considered an emblem of the Medici dynasty, due to the assonance between the surname and the name of the orange tree, which at that time was "bad". medical '. Unlike the "Allegory of Spring", which is painted on wood, the "Birth of Venus" was painted on canvas, a medium that was widely used throughout the 15th century for decorative works intended for noble houses. Botticelli draws inspiration from classical statues for Venus' modest posture, as she covers her nudity with long blonde hair, which has light reflections due to the fact that it has been gilded; even the Winds, the couple flying in each other's embrace, is based on an ancient work, a gem of the Hellenistic period, owned by Lorenzo the Magnificent.

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The Madonna De Foligno

Raphael Sanzio, 1512. The painting was commissioned by Sigismondo de' Conti, secretary of Pope Julius II, to commemorate a miracle in which the donor's house, in Foligno, was struck by lightning or, according to another version, by a projectile during the Foligno site, although it was not damaged. It is an oil painting on board that was transferred to canvas. It constitutes a milestone of Western painting due to its skillful composition and the differentiation between the celestial and earthly planes. The Virgin and Child Jesus, supported by a cloud of angels and framed by an orange disk, dominate the group of saints below them, among whom is the kneeling donor. This celestial zone appears distanced from the one below due to greater chromatic modulation and luminosity. The stormy atmosphere of the landscape in the background, and the flash of lightning (or explosion) striking the Chigi Palace (visible on the left) illustrates the legend to which it was intended to allude. The strong characterization of the figures and the refined chiaroscuro distinguishes this panel as a work of the artist in his maturity.

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Ballroom

Organized by André Le Nôtre between 1680 and 1683, this grove is one of Louis XIV's favorites and was inaugurated in 1685. The central area originally has an oval dance floor, delimited by a small canal. This track was destroyed at the beginning of the 18th century. We can imagine hearing the music, letting ourselves be carried by the wind and contemplating how the professional dancers delighted us with their dances in that century, in this unique setting. Rebuilt after the French Revolution when everything was looted, almost in its original state of the time. The orchestra would be placed on the fountain that throws water in the form of a waterfall. That waterfall subtly covers original sea and beach shells. The same royal fleet traveled to Madagascar to bring back shells because they were said to be the most beautiful. Where the grass is today were the stands for the public to sit. A dance floor was installed in the center and was used for dancing. Versailles would also become the artistic and cultural capital of the empire. Louis XIV knows that the Renaissance had already occurred in Italy, however he invested to develop all the arts and turned his century into the Great French Golden Age, the apogee of French classicism. Writers like Racine, Corneille and La Fontaine, playwrights like Molière and musicians like Lully delighted with their works in this place. He also promoted the creation of the great French Ballet Academy, reinventing this dance and leaving us with a large part of its structure until today.

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Heloise and the tomb of Abelardo

The tragic romance of Heloise and Abelard is the most famous cursed love story of the Middle Ages. Born in the 11th century, Heloise was a wealthy aristocrat famous for being the first woman to teach liberal arts. Abelard, a man of the church, as well as one of the greatest philosophers of the time, was hired to give the young woman an education according to her abilities. A forbidden passion burned between them, leading to a secret marriage after the birth of an illegitimate child. When their affair finally came to light, the Church was furious and had Abelard castrated while Heloise took the veil. Since they were not allowed to see each other for the rest of their lives, they wrote love letters to each other that are now considered among the most important in French literature. His remains were buried under this impressive tomb, designed by Alexandre Lenoir, in 1817.

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Baile en el Moulin-Rouge

Henri from Toulouse-Lautrec. 1895. Following the line of his lithographic works spread on the streets in the form of posters, Toulouse-Lautrec agreed to create two monumental decorative panels for Goulue, a famous cabaret dancer who wanted to present her show in a booth installed at the Trône fair. Loyal to this declining star of the Moulin-Rouge, whom he had portrayed on several occasions during his golden age, the artist made a work exposed to the elements, and saved from an ephemeral fate thanks to its acquisition in 1900 by the collector Viau . The Dance at the Moulin Rouge, La Goulue and Valentin le Désossé (left panel) is a reminder of the acrobatic and frenetic dance numbers that had made the dancer and her partner famous. In the background, other characters from this nightlife circle can be seen, such as Jane Avril with a feather hat. The Moorish dance (right panel) evokes the belly dance spectacle, freely inspired by oriental choreographies, proposed by Goulue inside her barracks. The audience, which appears in the foreground thanks to a bold perspective, is made up of friends of Toulouse-Lautrec such as Oscar Wilde (from behind), or the famous critic Félix Fénéon, in the lower right corner. The artist represents himself in the midst of this extravagant audience.

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Henry IV

The Statue of Henry IV on Horseback is one of the most emblematic statues in Paris. Located on the Pont Neuf, it pays homage to King Henri IV, one of the most beloved sovereigns in the history of France. The statue was erected in 1818 and is the work of sculptor François-Frédéric Lemot. The statue depicts Henry IV on horseback, dressed in armor and holding a spear in his right hand. The king is depicted in a majestic pose, with a determined expression on his face. His horse is also beautifully sculpted, with great attention to detail in his musculature and mane. The statue is placed on a stone plinth decorated with bas-reliefs depicting scenes from the life of King Henry IV. These bas-reliefs retrace some of the most important moments of his reign, such as the signing of the Edict of Nantes and the Battle of Ivry. The Statue of Henry IV on Horseback is a popular meeting place for locals and tourists. It offers a breathtaking view of the Seine and the surrounding quays. Many visitors enjoy strolling along the Pont Neuf and stopping to admire this magnificent statue. For history buffs, the statue is also an important symbol of the French monarchy. Henry IV is often considered one of the most influential kings of France, having succeeded in ending the wars of religion and establishing a period of peace and prosperity. If you visit the Statue of Henry IV on Horseback, be sure to admire the details of the sculpture and take the time to appreciate the history it represents. You can also take the opportunity to stroll along the Pont Neuf and discover the other architectural treasures of Paris.

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Tapestry Gallery

In Italian they are called ''Arazzi'' since they were manufactured in the French city of Arras, a particularly active center in the 14th and 15th centuries in the production and export of this type of fabrics. In Spanish, however, it comes from the Latin term ''tapete'' and from there: tapestry. Tapestries became fashionable especially throughout the 16th century, being used for two main reasons: to decorate the walls of large reception rooms in noble palaces and, above all, to cover those walls to maintain temperatures, a kind of function. of insulator. In the room, we mainly see fabrics of Flemish origin (Belgium and Holland) where the main workshops in Europe were located. The workshop where they come from was that of Pieter van Aelst, called ''New School'', commissioned by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534), from cartoons designed by Raphael's students and disciples. The ''Cartoons'' of the different scenes representing the Acts of the Apostles are preserved in London. They were commissioned to be displayed in the Sistine Chapel, in the lower part, for the days of religious festivities, since different events such as the Via Crucis were held. The tapestries we now see were first exhibited in 1531 in the Sistine Chapel and in 1838 they were prepared for placement in this gallery. However, originally in this room those designed by Rafael were displayed, which were transferred to the art gallery, kept in large structures for conservation. On the left side of the room, we see the following tapestries in this order: Epiphany of the shepherds; epiphany of the wise men; the transfiguration, the slaughter of the innocents; the resurrection and the supper at Emmaus. Last section on the left: The Centurion Cornelius and The Death of Julius Caesar. On the right side, these are certain representations of the life of Pope Urban VIII of the 18th century, commissioned for his papal offices. We see: six tapestries of events from the life of Urban VIII (Manfeo Barberini), one with the Countess Matilda of Canossa who donates her assets to the Holy See and with the presentation of the temple. The tapestries we now see were first exhibited in 1531 in the Sistine Chapel and in 1838 they were prepared for placement in this gallery.

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Dispute of the Blessed Sacrament

This painting was the first fresco to decorate the rooms that today are known as Raphael's Rooms. The title was later given by the painter Giorgio Vasari, however there has been controversy regarding this name and many think that the title should be “The Triumph of the Church”. On the sides of the Holy Trinity (with God the Father, the Christ between the Virgin, Saint John the Baptist and the Holy Spirit placed in the central axis) is the Church Triumphant, with patriarchs and prophets of the Old Testament alternating with apostles and martyrs, sitting in a hemicycle above the clouds. The characters are, from left to right: Saint Peter, Adam, Saint John the Evangelist, David, Saint Lawrence, Judas Maccabeus, Saint Stephen, Moses, Saint James the Great, Abraham, Saint Paul. On the ground, on the sides of the altar over which the Blessed Sacrament dominates, is located the Church Militant. On the marble thrones closest to the altar are seated the four Fathers of the Latin Church: Saint Gregory the Great (with the features of Julius II), Saint Jerome, Saint Ambrose and Saint Augustine. Some of the other figures have the physiognomy of historical figures: the portraits of Sixtus IV (Julius II's uncle) can be recognized in the pontiff located further to the right; of Dante Alighieri behind his back; of Blessed Angelico in the friar on the far left. The fresco aims to represent in paint what could be called theological Truth, compared to the philosophical Truth that personifies the fresco of the School of Athens that is opposite. In the Christian tradition, this theological truth is personified in the Eucharist, a gesture of sacramental sacrifice in memory of the royal sacrifice and thanksgiving that Jesus Christ bequeaths to his disciples in his memory, shortly before his passion. Therefore, the entire service of the Church of Christ on earth revolves around this supreme act, as a means of redemption and also of relationship with a divine being that includes the Trinity, the heavenly powers and the saints in all ages. epochs. It is therefore this complex theological reality that Raphael intends to represent in this fresco, which must be, given that it is intended for the office and library of Pope Julius II, a support for the contemplation of the mystery of the Church on earth and in heaven.

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The old rabbi

Signed and dated 1665, this portrait was created towards the end of Rembrandt's prolific artistic career, much of which was dedicated to portrait painting. In fact, it was as a portrait painter that Rembrandt became known in the 1630s in Amsterdam, where he lived for a long time in the Jewish quarter and often used neighbors and acquaintances as models for his paintings. The old man's face in the portrait has been identified as that of a rabbi; In fact, it has been suggested that the portrait may be attributed to a precise figure, Rabbi Haham Saul Levy Morteira, but the documents do not yet confirm this. In the portrait, Rembrandt studies the psychology of the old man, emphasizing the individuality of his expression and the impression of being lost in his thoughts, which seem swallowed up by the dark background of the painting. This tone is emphasized by the artist's technique, characterized by the use of textured colors that spread thickly over the canvas. The quality of the painting did not escape the attention of Napoleonic officials and from 1799 to 1815 the painting was transferred to Paris, and then returned to Florence in 1834 to be exhibited in the Palatine Gallery of the Pitti Palace.

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The Scribe Unsu

This sculpture represents a marriage of Unsu who probably lived in the reign of Thutmose III, who was one of the most important and powerful monarchs of the three thousand years of pharaonic civilization. During the course of his reign, the Egyptian empire reached its maximum territorial extension. Unsu was an official, the official grain counter of the temple of the god Amun in Thebes. For the number of sculptures and paintings, we see the importance represented by a grain counter at that time in Egypt. Here he is observed in a solemn position with his wife. All the paintings that are observed around are those of his funeral chapel that show scenes of his life. He is seen supervising the cultivation of cereals, from plowing to harvesting and transporting the grain of water.

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Bacchus Fountain

Everything in these gardens is symmetrical, and to mark this symmetry, André Le Nôtre has 4 stationary fountains that each represent a season of the year. Here the season is autumn, and the signs are the grapes placed that remind us of the harvest, which takes place in autumn. Above is Bacchus, the god of wine, festivities and everything good, along with 4 satyrs who give him the grapes. Wine was very present in Versailles thanks to the countless parties that took place there, in which it is said that up to 10 thousand people could be received. The grand master of parties was Louis XIV's brother, Philippe d'Orléans. In honor of Bacchus, one could say that those parties were bacchanals, where as time passed, composure was lost and the strict rules of the Court were forgotten.

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Banquet at the Crossbowmen’s Guild in Celebration of the Treaty of Münster

This work is a group portrait made by the Dutch painter Bartholomeus van der Helst, a clear representative of the Golden Age of Dutch painting. Completed in 1648, the scene shows a banquet at the crossbowmen's guild in Amsterdam. The occasion was the signing of the Treaty of Münster, to formalize the end of the war with Spain. The captains of the civic guard company shake hands as a sign of peace, and pass around a drinking horn. A leaf is seen on the drum. There, in addition to pointing out the names of the participants, the joy of the armed militias of Amsterdam for stopping using their weapons is proclaimed. The civic guards were the city's militia. Made up of volunteers, each district had its own armed company. In addition, each one had its own headquarters, which after the construction of taller and larger buildings in the 17th century began to be decorated with portraits of the militiamen on the walls. It was for this reason that the Amsterdam company commissioned Van der Helst to immortalize such an important moment to honor its members.

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Temple of Fortuna Augusta

Like many other places of worship throughout the Roman Empire, this small temple based on marble capitals and columns and with the altar in front was not only dedicated to the celebration of specific rituals in honor of the emperor Augustus (31 BC). C.-14 AD) but also to the propaganda in favor of the imperial house by the local elite. In this case, an inscription gives us the name of the building's manufacturer: Marcus Tullius, son of Marcus, duoviri of Pompeii. The construction of the temple at his expense and on land he owned made Marcus Tullius a great defender of the emperor. The cult of Fortuna Augusta was attended by a group of slaves and liberti*, that is, groups particularly related to the emperor as guarantor of their rights and ambitions. The marble coverings that adorned the building were removed only a few years after the eruption. There was a statue of Fortuna in the temple cell and statues of the imperial family in the niches at the side.

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Girl in a White Kimono

Inspired by Japanese prints, between 1893 and 1896 the Dutch impressionist Breitner made thirteen paintings of a girl in a kimono. She assumes different poses and the kimono often has a different color. What catches the eye here is the embroidered white silk kimono with red trim sleeves and an orange sash. The model is a sixteen-year-old girl named Geesje Kwak, a seamstress and one of his usual muses. Breitner preferred models from the working class, servants and people from the lower class, seeing himself as 'the people's painter'. With his nervous brushstrokes he captured the dynamics of life on the street; Demolition works within the old town, horse trams in Dam Square, canals or the city in the rain, those were its recurring themes. In 1886 he moved to Amsterdam, where he began to capture the life of the city in sketches, paintings and photos. Since cameras became affordable, Breitner had a much better instrument to satisfy his ambitions. He became interested in motion capture and city lighting, and became a master at it. Sometimes I would take several photos of the same subject, from different angles and weather conditions. These photos could serve as a guide for painting, as happened with the portraits of the girl in the kimono, or simply as reference material.

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Woman Reading a Letter

In a quiet and private moment, a young woman stands while reading a letter. It's morning, and he's still wearing his blue robe. Known as 'Woman Reading a Letter', it was painted by the Dutch painter Vermeer in 1664. This painting stands out for the simplicity of the composition; The woman immersed in her thoughts is the central figure of the ensemble, the chairs and table that surround her have lost their importance, and only the map on the wall breaks the uniformity. All other colors are subordinate to its radiant blue, while yellow and red are barely noticeable. Vermeer precisely characterized the different effects of cold light; He was, for example, the first artist to try soft gray for skin and to paint wall shadows light blue. Thanks to its classic simplicity, grandeur and almost abstract concept, this is one of the artist's masterpieces.

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the arc of nero

The Arch of Nero is located in the northeast corner of the Civil Forum of Pompeii, between the Temple of Jupiter and the Macellum. It is part of the vaulted structure that delimits the Forum to the North and, at the same time, constitutes its access point from the Via degli Augustali, being passable by pedestrians. It is a unique fornix arch, with four square niches on the north and south sides of the two solid piers. Those on the Forum side are intended to house statues, while those on the street contained pipes and fountain basins. Today only the brick structure of the old structure remains. The attic is lost. Previously, the Arch was covered by a rich architectural decoration: on the travertine slabs that cover the lower part of the piers, the bases and axes of the marble columns that framed the niches are preserved; Fragments of pilaster strips and moldings are still in place on the east side. The luxurious architectural decoration, the statues inside the niches and the dedicatory inscription, found under the arch during excavations in May 1818 led scholars to identify the monument with a triumphal arch. It was commonly believed that the dedication of these buildings was strictly related to the celebration of triumph, the highest honor for a victorious commander that could be bestowed by the Senate. Most scholars claim that the arch was built after 23 and before 29 BC. D., when Nero Caesar was imprisoned. In any case, some other scholars pointed out that it was probably built after the removal of the arch to the east of the podium of the Temple of Jupiter, which would have impeded its view. The removal occurred before the earthquake of 62 AD since the arch is not represented in the relief found in the house of L. Caecilius Iucundus. It is not clear whether the Arch of Nero underwent any restoration: the niche was walled off, but could still be observed on the east side, the Eastside marble facing, Breton's testimony indicating that a snake was painted on the side west, the plaster with a The inscription of elections under the marble covering at the entrance on the south side of the Forum, the travertine slabs missing on the east side, seem to indicate various interventions that occurred during the time, at least in the architectural decoration .

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Group at the edge of the forest painting

The often fragile economic conditions and political upheavals of the interwar period were in certain cases reflected in the art of the period. Escapist perspectives served as an alternative to compromised art, bringing stylistic concerns to the foreground. Relapses into Czech Cubism, increased interest in Cézanne and compositional borrowings from the Baroque can be observed, especially in the early 1920s. Anton Kolig, a Carinthian by choice and the leading representative of the Nötsch Circle, devoted himself to the interface between homoeroticism and the mythical transfiguration of the male nude motif. Otto Rudolf Schatz of Vienna and Rudolf Wacker of Vorarlberg took a different path, using meticulous brushstrokes reminiscent of the Old Masters to explore the dark abysses of the restless individual. The Leopold Collection's possession of important works by Anton Faistauer, Herbert Boeck and Josef Dobrowsky complete the picture of diversified art production in the interwar period.

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Louis XIV

I present to you the great hero, the culprit, the protagonist of this place that is Versailles. The good and the bad embodied in one man. He lived almost 77 years in the 17th century when the average age was no more than 30 years. He will be the oldest of all the kings of France and the one who has ruled the longest. King of France and Navarre, thanks to the fact that he is the grandson of Henry IV, the first French Bourbon, and Louis XIII famous for his Cardinal Richelieu. In the 17th century, people are born, live, die, are reincarnated knowing only one king: Louis XIV. He became the most powerful king of the time and placed France as the great power of that century. His story begins when he is crowned at just 5 years old. His father has died, and his education is entrusted to Cardinal Mazarin, while his mother Anne of Austria of Spain is the Regent. In 1661 his almost second father Mazarin died, and now Luis decided to enter the political scene. He chooses a date, June 5, 1662, when the Great Dauphin, his first son, is born, to hold a great equestrian show at the Louvre, installing a large carrousel and inviting 15,000 guests. He emerges from the audience showing those present a symbol of a sun and his motto: "Nec pluribus impar" (nothing else like it). Imagine saying "l'Etat c'est moi" (The State, it is me) and from now on I will be your Sun King, the same reincarnation of the God Apollo! and in this year 1662, he ordered the construction of Versailles.

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Sanctuary of the public Lares

Sanctuary of the Public Lares is one of the most interesting and mysterious buildings in Pompeii, due to its complex and lively architecture, illuminated by niches and columns leaning against the walls. They were probably originally decorated with rich marble decoration, which was never completed. It opens to its full length into the hole. In the remaining eight bases there were as many marble statues and in the center of the area was the altar for sacrifices. Located on the east side of the Forum of Pompeii, between the Macellum and the Temple of Vespasian, the sanctuary of the Public Lares, twenty-one meters long and eighteen meters wide, is still incomplete. It was erected after the earthquake of 62 AD and dedicated to the patron gods of Pompeii, to try to remedy their public aversion to the city. This was manifested precisely through the cataclysm that had struck him in 62 AD. According to some scholars, however, the sanctuary was built before the earthquake and linked to the cult of the imperial family. The sanctuary of the Public Lares was probably built after the Pompeii earthquake of 62, an event considered by the Pompeians as a sign of the wrath of the gods and its construction was therefore carried out to atone for divine aversion: it was dedicated to Lares, as also shown by a fresco found in the house of Lucio Cecilio Giocondo, which showed the damage caused by the earthquake to the temple; The proximity to the temple of Vespasian allowed, during the festivities, to simultaneously celebrate the emperor and the protective deities of Pompeii. However, according to other scholars, the structure may have been built before and dedicated to the cult of the imperial family or, according to others, used as a public library: among all the hypotheses, however, the first is the most probable, as in At the time of the eruption, the temple was still under construction and, from various studies, no traces of previous restorations have been found. Buried under a blanket of lapilli and ash from the eruption of Vesuvius in 79, it was brought to light at the end of the 18th century after archaeological excavations carried out by the Bourbons.

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Michelangelo's Slaves

by Michelangelo Buonarotti. Titian, Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo were the titans of Italian art in the sixteenth century. Their work reveals a sense of simplicity and harmony that makes them true masters. The Louvre houses two sculptures by Michelangelo. The artist was commissioned to work on the mausoleum of Pope Julius II, but the project was changed several times and Michelangelo left the work unfinished. 40 statues were originally intended for the tomb. The finished sections of the figures remind us of Michelangelo's desire to reproduce, if not enhance, the beauty of ancient sculptures. The Rebelious Slave writhes as he struggles to free himself. The flexible and sensual form of the dying slave expresses peace and harmony. We can see the use of Contrapposto, how the change of weight on a foot creates a sensation of serenity and movement. It is said that Michelangelo chose to sculpt an allegory inspired by Plato: the human soul is chained to the body as a slave, its earthly prison. Each slave expresses a different emotion to the problem: one slave suffers while the other abandons himself to sensuality. Michelangelo manages to unite the physical and spiritual world in these works. Another interpretation due to its incomplete nature is based on technical methods. Was there a problem with the marble? If you look at the head of the rebellious slave, there is a fine grain that goes through his face. However, it is also important to note that Michelangelo enjoyed leaving features on his work, such as his tool brands. It is a reminder of the investment and effort of the artist, who always considered sculpture as the noblest of the arts. Michelangelo went on to paint the Sistine Chapel of Pope Julius II. Michelangelo donated the slaves to Roberto Strozzi who later gave them to the King of France, François I. They have only been exhibited in the Louvre since the Revolution.